The noun

1. Derivation

44) The formation of abstract nouns uses the following suffixes :

a) -an (declension according to §78) : henkan- "destiny, epidemic, death" (hink- "to assign"), nahhan "fear" (nah- "to fear") ; maybe also kussan "salary" and sahhan "fief".

b) -ātar (declension according to §83) : idālawātar "nastiness" (idālu- "evil"), palhātar "width" (palhi- "wide"), sullātar "argument" (sullāi- "to argue"), lahhiyātar "expedition" (lahhiya- "to campaign").

c) -essar (declension according to §84) : asessar "hearing" (es- "to sit"), hannessar "lawsuit" (hanna- "to judge"), palhessar "width" (palhi- "wide").

d) -asti (rarely) : palhasti "width" (palhi- "wide"), dalugasti "length" (daluki- "long").

e) -att- (declension according to §76) : kartimmiyatt- "anger" (kartimmiya- "to be angry"), aniyatt- "achievement" (aniya- "to achieve"), nahsaratt- "fear" (nahsariya- "to be afraid"), karuiliyatt- "old age" (karuili- "old").

f) -ima- : tethima- "thunder" (tethāi- "to thunder"), ekunima- "cold" (ekuna- "cold"), weritema- "fear" (werites- "to be afraid").

g) -ul (declension according to §79) : assul "happiness" (assu- "good").

h) -ur (declension according to §80) : aniur "(religious) task" (aniya- "to achieve") ; maybe also kurur "hostile; hostility".

i) -(u)war (non verbal ; declension according to §85) : asawar "enclosure, fence", partawar "wing".

45) The action nouns end in :

a) -āi- (declension according to §69) : lengāi- "oath" (lenk- "to swear"), hurtāi- "curse" (hurta- "to curse"), wastāi- "sin" (wasta- "to sin"), zahhāi- "fight" (zah- "to strike").

b) -ul (declension according to §79) : ishiul "link, contract" (ishiya- "to link"), wastul "sin" (wasta- "to sin").

c) -sha- (of Hurrian origin ?) : dammesha- "damage", unuwasha- "ornament" (unuwāi- "to decorate"), maybe also tesha- "sleep, dream".

d) -ēl (declension according to §79) : hurkēl "disgust" (next to the concrete noun suēl "thread").

e) -zēl : sarnikzēl "indemnity, replacement" (sarnink- "to replace, to pay").

46) The actor nouns are built with :

a) -tara- : wastara- "shepherd" (wesiya- "to graze").

b) -talla- : arsanatalla- "envious" (arsaniya- "to envy"), uskiskatalla- "observer" (uskisk- "to observe"), f, ĜIŠirhuitalla- "basket bearer".

c) -ala- : auriyala- (next to auriyatalla-) "border gard" (auri- "border post"), ispantuzziyala- "wine dealer" (ispantuzzi- "wine barrel"), karimnāla- "temple employee" (Ékarimmi- "temple").

d) The element -sepa can be broadly interpreted as a way to personify abstract notions : daganzipa- "(genie of the) earth", Ispanzasepa- "genie of the night", dKamrusepa "health goddess", dMiyatanzipa- "genie of the growth of plants".

47) The instrument nouns end in :

a) -ul (declension according to §79) : sesarul "sieve" (sesariya- "to sieve").

b) -uzzi : ishuzzi "belt" (ishiya- "to buckle"), lahhurnuzzi (kind of altar), ispantuzzi- "wine barrel".

c) The suffix -alli- can be added in order to build concrete nouns relative to a part of the body : kuttanalli- "necklace" (kuttar "neck"), harsanalli- "crown" (harsan- "head"), issalli- "saliva" (ais/iss- "mouth"), puriyalli- "gag" (from puri- "lip").

48) The suffix -ant- has several uses not yet clarified :

a) It builds substantives such as :

1. Supposedly collectives : utnē- "land" and utnēyant- "land (as a whole)", tuzzi- "army" and tuzziyant- "mass of troops", antuhsatar "humanity" and antuhsannant- (< *antuhsatnant-; §32a1) "population".

2. A particular group about time, especially season names : hamesh(a)- and hameshant- "spring", gim- and gimmant- "winter".

3. In many cases, there is no difference between the base noun and the one modified by -ant- : sankunni- and sankunniyant- "priest", huhha- and huhhant- "grand-father", hilammar and hilamnant- "gate", eshar and eshanant- "blood", uttar and uddanant- "word, speech", kast- and kistant- "hunger".

Inside this group, one can find several words about parts of body : kalulupa- and kalulupant- "finger", tapuwas- and tapuwassant- "rib, side", hastāi- and hastiyant- "bone", sankuwai- and sankuwayant- "finger nail".

b) 1. One can also find adjectives extended by the suffix -ant- and synonymous with the root word : assu- and assuwant- "good", irmala- and irmalant- "ill", suppi- and suppiyant- "pure", dapiya- and dapiyant "all".

2. Some adjectives are maybe built from substantives : perunant- "rocky" from peruna- "rock", kaninant- "thirsty" from kanint- "thirst".

49) Some derived adjectives are built with the following suffixes :

a) -ala- : genzuwala- "friendly" (genzu- "fondness"), tuwala- "faraway" (tuwa adv. "far") ; cf. also §46c.

b) -ili- : karūili- "old" (karū adv. "previously").

c) isolated with -ya- in order to designate the belonging : ispantiya- "nightly" (ispant- "night"), istarniya- "average" (istarn- "center").

d) with -want- with the meaning "that owns, provided with" : samankurwant- "bearded" (zamankur "beard"), kartimmiyawant- "angry" (kartimmiya- "to be angry"), kistuwant- "hungry" (kast- "hunger") ; somehow different : esharwant- "scarlet" (eshar "blood"), apēnissuwant- "such" from apēnissan "thus".

e) -zi- in constructs of comparative type : hantezzi- "ahead, first" (hant- "before"), appezzi- "back" (appa "back, behind"), sarazzi- "superior" (sarā "up").

50) Miscellaneous constructs :

a) The feminine is not differenciated from the masculine in the grammar, but the language has a suffix -sara- (probably inherited, and not borrowed from Proto-Hatti) : isha- "lord" and ishassara- "lady", ÌR "slave" and *GEME2-assara- "slave".

b) Ethnic nouns use the suffix -umna- (-uma- ; §32b1) : URUHattusumna- "man from Hattusa", URUPalāumna "man from Palāu", URULuiumna- "Luwian", LÚ URUHalpūma- "man from Alep", Plur. LÚMEŠ URUNēsumenēs "people of Nesa".

c) -(a)nni- seems to be the diminutive suffix : dLUGAL-manni- (i.e. dSarrumanni-) "young Sarruma", dNinattani- "small (statuette of the goddess) Ninatta", armanni- "small crescent moon" (arma- "moon").

51) The following suffixes of Luwian origin are used for Luwian but also Hittite adjectives :

a) -alli- and -talli- : hirutalli- "relating to an oath" (Luw. hiru(n)t- "oath"), muwatalli- "strong" (Luw. (?) muwa- "strength"), pittiyalli- "fast" (piddāi- "to run").

b) -assi- (-assa-) in names such as dHilassi- ("relating to the court (hila-)"), dWasdulassi- ("relating to sin (wastul)"), dIstamanassa- "god of the ears" (istamana- "ear"), dSakuwassa- "god of the eyes" (sakuwa- "eye").

c) -imi- (actually, suffix of the Luwian past participle) in names such as dSarlaimi- ("the High One"), dAlawaimi-, etc...

52) Occasionally, cases of reduplication occur, e.g. : memal- "groats" (mall- "to grind"), titita- "pupil", duddumi- "deaf", halhaltumari- "boundary stone", harsiharsi- "storm", akuwakuwa- "frog (?)".

53) a) Unlike the other ancient I.E. languages, Hittite has very few compound nouns : dā-yuga "two-year-old" (next to yuga- "yearly, one-year-old"), appa-siwatt- "future" ("after-day"), salla-kartātar "pride (?)". Less certain : huhha-hanna- "grand-father (huhha-) and grand-mother (hanna-)", as well as the bird name pittar-palhi- ("wing-wide").

b) Though not strictly compound nouns, nominal constructs made of a verb and a particle occur : piran huyatalla- "forerunner" (piran "ahead", huya- "to run"), parā handandātar "divine justice", kattakurant- (a "container cut (kuer- "to cut") at the bottom (katta)" = with a flat bottom ?), andayant- (antiyant-) "married son-in-law" (anda iyant-) "got in (the house of the father-in-law)".

2. Declension

54) a) Hittite has two genders : the common gender (comprising the masculine and the feminine genders ; this gender will later split up in I.E. into a masculine and a feminine gender) and the neuter gender (already declining).

b) There are two numbers : the singular and the plural. What remains of the dual is inflected as the plural.

55) a) Hittite has eight cases derived from the I.E. cases : Nominative, Vocative, Accusative, Genitive, Dative-Locative, Allative, Ablative and Instrumental. Vocative is poorly attested, while Old-Hittite Allative was replaced by Dative-Locative in Neo-Hittite.

b) Hittite also uses a special ending for neuter nouns subjects of a transitive verb. This case, called Ergative, transfers the neuter noun to the common gender.

56) Outline of declension :

  Singular Plural
Nom. comm. -s -es, -us, -as
Voc. comm. - (-e)  
Acc. comm. -n -us
N.-Acc. N. -, -n -, -a, -i
Erg. N. -anza -antēs
Gen. -as (never -s!) -as, Old-H. also -an
Dat.-Loc. -i -as
All. -a -as
Abl. -az(a) -az(a)
Instr. -it -it

57) a) The ending of the Nom. Sg. is always pronounced -s. It is written -s for vocalic stems : atta-s "father", zahhāi-s "battle", heu-s "rain". Stems in -t produce a group of consonants -t-s written -z after a vowel : kar-tim-mi-ia-az = *kartimmiyatt-s "anger", and -za after a consonant (while pronounced -z = -t-s ; §25a2) : hu-u-ma-an-za = *hūmant-s "this", ka-a-a-aš-za = *kast-s "hunger".

b) 1. The isolated root is used as Voc. Sg. : isha-mi "my lord", dKumarbi, mAppu.

2. For u-stems, vocative forms in -ue also occur : LUGAL-ue "ô king", dUTU-ue "ô Sun-god".

3. In all cases, the forms of Nom. can be used as Voc.

58) The Gen. Sg. ends in -as, and never, as was once believed, in -s. There is no form of Gen. Sg. UD-az (= UD-at-s) "of the day" ; nekur mehur "evening" is not a genitive form "time of the night" but rather an apposition "night-time". The genitives mNunnus, mTaruhsus in Old-Hittite, as well as the isolated form sankuwais "of the nail" can be explained by §14a2 as *INunnuwas, *ITaruhsuwas, *sankuwayas.

59) a) Old-Hittite had a All. Sg. in -a (< -ai < I.E. *-ōi) and a Loc. Sg. in -i : All. aruna "to the sea", Loc. aruni "in the sea".

b) 1. In Neo-Hittite, Allative was replaced by the Dative-Locative in -i : aruni "to the sea, at the sea".

2. i-stems use for the Dat.-Loc. the ending -(y)a of the old Allative : tuzziya : "to the army, in the army", hulukanniya (next to hulukanni) "in the chariot".

c) The ancient ending -ai (a stage former to -a, §59a) is sometimes found : mLabarnai "at Labarna", hassannai "to the family" (from hassatar).

d) 1. In some cases, consonant stems use a Dat.-Loc. without ending : É-ir "in the house", UD-at "in the day", ŠÀ-ir "in the heart", dagan "on the ground", nepis "in heaven", kessar-ta "in your (sg.) hand".

2. The isolated form of Dat.-Loc. Sg. sarku "to the hero" can be explained as a Dat.-Loc. without ending, or according to §17a.

60) The Ablative Sg. sometimes ends in -anza rather than -az (cf. §31b) : luttanza "from the window", nepisanza "from the sky", hassannanza "out of the family (hassatar)".

61) The Instrumental Sg. also ends in -ta : kissarit "with the hand", istamanta "with the ear" ; cf. also wedanda and wetenit "with water".

62) a) In Old-Hittite, the Gen. Pl. in -an (< I.E. *-ōm) was distinct from the Dat.-Loc. Pl. in -as : Gen. Pl. siunan "of the gods", Dat.-Loc. Pl. siunas "with the gods", ÌRMEŠ-amman "of my slaves" (according to §36a1 < ÌRMEŠ-an-man).

b) In Neo-Hittite, the ending -as of the Dat.-Loc. Pl. has been applied to the Gen. Pl. : Gen. Pl. siunas "of the gods" and Dat.-Loc. siunas "with the gods". The old genitive in -an is only found in formal speech.

c) The endings -as of the Gen. Sg. and the Gen. Pl. being the same in Neo-Hittite, the old ending -an is sometimes used for the Gen. Sg. : LUGAL-an "of the king", mLabarnan "of Labarna".

63) The Nominative and the Accusative Pl. tend to be used one for the other :

a) The Nom. Pl. is used as Accusative : pargawēs "the great ones", huprushēs "the elders", dalugaēs "the long ones".

b) The Acc. Pl. is used as Nominative : parhandus "the stressed ones".

63b) Many nouns in Neo-Hittite exhibit an alternation between a-stems and i-stems. Some a-stems borrow forms from the i-stems (especially the Nom. and Acc. Common Sg. and Pl.), and conversely some i-stems borrow forms from the a-stems (especially the cases complementary to the previous alternation : all the Neuter cases and the oblique Common cases ; cf. e.g. §67b). This is caused by the influence of Luwian.

Thèmes vocaliques

Vocalic stems

64) a (and ā)-stems

a) Substantives



Nom. antuhsas annas arunas kesseras ishās
Acc. antuhsan   arunan kisseran  
Voc.         isha
Gen. antuhsas annas arunas kissaras  
Dat.-Loc. antuhsi anni aruni kissiri ishī (eshe)
All.     aruna   isha
Abl. antuhsaz annaz arunaz(a) kissaraz(a)  
Instr.       kisserit  


Nom. antuhses (antuhsus) annis     ishēs
Acc. antuhsus annus arunus kisserus  
Gen. antuhsas        
Dat.-Loc. antuhsas       ishās
Instr.       ŠUHI.A-it  


  Singular Plural
N.-A. pedan  
Gen. pedas  
Dat.-Loc. pedi (pidi) pedas
Abl. pedaz (petaz)  

65) a-stems

b) Adjectives

They are inflected exactly like the substantive. No rule has been found for the alternation between the endings -an and -a in Nom.-Acc. Sg. Neuter.


Nom. comm.   arahzenas kunnas
Acc. comm. dannattan arahzinan ZAG-an
N.-A. n. dannattan (dannatta)   kunnan (ZAG-an, ZAG-na)
Gen.   arahzenas ZAG-nas
Dat.-Loc. dannatti arahzeni kunni (ZAG-ni)
All.   arahzena  
Abl.   arahzenaza kunnaz (ZAG-(n)az(a))
Instr.     ZAG-(n)it


Nom. comm.   arahzenes (arahzenas) ZAG-nis
Acc. comm.   arahzenus (arahzenas) ZAG-nus
N.-A. n. dannatta arahzena kunna
Gen.   arahzenan  
Dat.-Loc. tannattas    

66) i-stems

a) Substantives



Nom. halkis tuzzis (tuzziyas) ĜIŠhulukannis  
Acc. halkin tuzzin ĜIŠhulukannin  
Gen. halkiyas tuzzias ĜIŠhulugannas  
D.-L.   tuzziya ĜIŠhuluganni(ya) halhaltumari (halhaldummariya)
Abl. halkiyaza tuzziyaz ĜIŠhuluganniyaz (ĜIŠhulugannaza)  
Instr. halkit   ĜIŠhulukannit  


Nom. halkis     halhaltumarēs
Acc. halkius (halkēs; §63a) tuzzius (tuzziyas)    
Gen.       halhaltummariyas
D.-L.       halhaltumariyas
Abl.       halhaltumaraza



N.-A. NA4huwasi DUGispantuzzi
Gen. NA4huwasiyas DUGispantuzziyas
D.-L. NA4huwasi(ya) DUGispantuzzi (DUGispantuzziya)
Abl. NA4huwasiyaz DUGispantuzziaz
Instr.   DUGispantuzzit


N.-A. NA4huwāsi HI.A  

67) a) The Nom. Sg. tuzziyas is an analogical construct on the ya-stem.

b) The Gen. Sg. ĜIŠhulugannas, the Abl. Sg. ĜIŠhulugannaza and the Abl. Pl. halhaltumaraza are analogical constructs on the a-stem.

c) For the Dat.-Loc. Sg. tuzziya, NA4huwasiya, etc..., cf §59b2.

68) Substantives in ai-

a) They are inflected with ablaut (§18) : lengais "oath", Acc. Sg. lengain, but Gen. Sg. linkiyas, etc...

b) One sometimes finds analogical constructs such as Gen. Sg. lengayas built from the Nom. and the Acc. Sg., or conversely the Acc. Sg. zahhin built from the Gen. Sg.




Nom. zahhais    
Acc. zahhain (zahhin) lingain zashain
Gen. zahhias linkiyas (lingayas)  
D.-L. zahhiya linkiya (lingai) zashiya
Abl. zahhiyaz(a) linkiyaz(a) zashiyaz
Instr.     zashit


Nom.   lingais  
Acc.   lingaus zashimus (§29b)


N.-A. hastai
Gen. hastiyas
D.-L. hastai
Instr. hastit

70) i-stems

b) Adjectives

a) The declension of the adjectival stems in -i and -u differ from the substantive by the apparition of an a before the thematic vowel in all cases except the Nom., the Acc. and the Instr Sg.

b) The occasional forms without this a are analogical constructs on the substantive, especially for karūili- "old".

71) a) salli- "big", suppi- "pure", mekki- "much", karūili- "old".


Nom. comm. sallis suppis mekkis karūilis
Acc. comm. sallin     karūilin
N.-A. n. salli suppi mekki karūili
Voc. GAL-li      
Gen. sallaiyas (sallas) suppayas   karūilias
D.-L. sallai suppai (suppaya, suppi, suppa)    
Abl. sallayaz suppayaz(a) (suppaz(a)) meqqayaz karūilēs (karūiliyas)
Instr.   suppit    


Nom. comm. sallaēs suppaēs (suppis) meggaēs (mekkēs) karūilēs (karūiliyas)
Acc. comm. sallaus (sallius) suppaus meggaus (mekkus)  
N.-A. n. salla suppa meggaya karūila
Gen.     meqqayas  
D.-L. sallayas suppayas (suppiyas)   karūiliyas
Abl.   suppayaza    

b) Forms without an i like the Gen. Sg. sallas, the Abl. Sg. suppaz(a), N.-A. Pl. n. salla, suppa are explained by §15a.

72) The root utne (KUR-e) n. "land" is close to the i-stems with the following declension :

  Singular Plural
N.-A. utne (utni) utne
Gen. utneyas (utniyas)  
D.-L. utnī (utniya) KUR-eas
Abl. utneaz  

73) u-stems

a) Substantives



Nom. harnaus wellus heus LUGAL-us
Acc. harnaun wellun heun LUGAL-un
Voc.       LUGAL-ue
Gen. harnawas   hewas (heyawas) LUGAL-was (LUGAL-an, §62c)
D.-L. harnawi welli   LUGAL-i
Abl.   welluwaz   LUGAL-waz
Instr.     heawit  


Nom.     hewēs (heyawēs)  
Acc.     heus (heamus, §29b)  
D.-L.   welluwas    


  Singular Plural
N.-A. genu genuwa
Gen. genuwas genuwas
All. genuwa genuwas
Abl.   ginuwaz

b) The forms of heu- "rain" with -(y)a- before the thematic vowel (Gen. Sg. heyawas, Instr. Sg. heawit, Nom. Pl. heyawēs, Acc. Pl. heamus) are built by analogy with the adjective.

c) The noun siu- "god" has a complex inflection :

  Singular Plural
Nom. DINGIR-uš (*sius), siunis siwannies
Acc. siunin simus
Gen. siunas siunan, siunas
D.-L. siuni  
Instr. siunit  

74) u-stems

b) Adjectives

a) Like adjectival i-stems, one finds a vowel a before the thematic vowel.

b) Occasionally, this a is caused by analogy with the substantive. For assu- "good", this analogy is clear because the neuter assu has been substantivized with the meaning "good, property".

75) assu- "good", parku- "high", idālu- "nasty".


Nom. comm. assus parkus idālus
Acc. comm. assun parkun idālun
N.-A. n. assu parku idālu
Gen. assawas parkuwas HUL-uwas
D.-L. assawi pargawe idālawi
Abl. assawaza pargawaz idālawaz (idālaz!)
Instr. assawet   HUL-it


Nom. comm. assawēs pargawēs (pargaus; §63b) idālawēs
Acc. comm. assamus (§29b) pargamus (§29b) (pargaus) idālamus (§29b)
N.-A. n. assawa pargawa idālawa
Gen.     idālawas
D.-L.   pargawas idālawas
Abl.     idālawaza
Instr. assawet    

Consonant stems

76) tt (t)-stems


Nom. comm. kartimmiyaz (§25a2 27a) aniyaz (§25a2 27a) UD-az
Acc. comm. kartimmiyattan aniyattan UD-an (UD.KAM-an)
N.-A. n.     UD-at
Gen.   aniyattas UD-as
D.-L. TUG.TUG-atti aniyatti siwatti (siwat; §59d)
Abl.     UD.KAM-az

Nom. comm. kar(a)iz (girez) kasza (§25a2) MU.KAM-za
Acc. comm.   kastan MU-an
Gen.     MU.KAM-as
D.-L. karaitti kasti witti
Abl.     MU.KAM-az
Instr.   kastita  


Nom. comm.     UD.KAMHI.A-us
Acc. comm. kartimmiyaddus   UDHI.A-us
N.-A. n.   aniyatta  
D.-L.   aniyattas UD.(KAM)HI.A-as

Nom. comm. garittēs (karittiyas)   MUHI.A-us
Acc. comm.     MUHI.A-us
N.-A. n.     wittan (§62a) (MUHI.A-as)
D.-L.     MU.KAMHI.A-as

77) nt-stems


Nom. comm. GE6(.KAM)-anza humanza (§25a2) appanza huiswanza
Acc. comm. ispandan humandan appantan huiswandan
N.-A. n.   human    
Gen. GE6-andas humandas   TI-antas
D.-L. ispanti humanti   huiswanti
Abl. ispandaz humandaz    


Nom. comm.   humantes (humandus; §63b) appantes huiswantes
Acc. comm.   humandus (humantes; §63a)   huiswandus
N.-A. n.   humanda appanti  
Gen.   humandas    
D.-L.   humandas    

78) n-stems


Nom. comm.       MUNUS-za
Acc. comm.       MUNUS-nan
N.-A. n. sahhan laman tekan  
Gen. sahhanas   tagnas MUNUS-nas
D.-L. sahhani lamni tagni MUNUS-ni
All.     tagnā  
Abl. sahhanaz(a)   tagnaz(a) (tagnāz)  
Instr. sahhanit lamnit    


Nom. comm.       MUNUSMEŠ-us
D.-L.   lamnas   MUNUSMEŠ-as

79) l-stems


Nom. c.     taksul    
N.-A. n. wastul ishiul taksul tawal suppal
Gen. wasdulas ishiul(l)as taksulas tawalas  
D.-L. wasduli   taksuli tawali supli (§26)
Abl.   ishiullaza      
Instr. wasdulit     tawal(l)it  


N.-A. n. wastul(HI.A) ishiuli HI.A taksul   suppala
Gen.         suppalan (§62a)

80) r-stems

a) without ablaut


Nom. comm. DUGhupparas sakuwassaras kurur
Acc. comm.   sakuwassaran  
N.-A. n. huppar sakuwassar kurur
Gen. hupparas sakuwassaras kururas
D.-L. huppari sakuwassari kururi
Abl. hupparaza sakuwassaraza  
Instr. (ĜIŠ)hupparit sakuwassarit  


Nom. comm.   sakuwassarus kurur
Acc. comm.   sakuwassarus  
N.-A. n. DUGhuppāri HI.A   kurur (kururi HI.A)
Gen.     kururas

b) The neuter kessar- "hand" is inflected in Old-Hittite with ablaut (like Greek πατήρ, πατρ-ός) :

  Singular Plural
N.-A. kessar  
D.-L. kisri (kessar; §59d) kisras
All. kisrā kisras
Instr. ki-iš-šar-at  

In Neo-Hittite, this word is of common gender and is inflected like an a-stem : Sg. Nom. kessaras, Acc. kisseran, etc... (§64).

81) r/n-stems

This group corresponds to the I.E. heteroclitic inflection that left some traces in the other I.E. languages (Old-Indian ūdhar, ūdhnas "udder", Lat. femur, feminis "thigh"). It is however well alive and productive in Hittite. All stems are neuter. For more clarity, these stems have been grouped into miscellaneous sub-groups :

82) a) Particular substantives, partly with and partly without ablaut

uttar "word, speech ", eshar "blood", lammar "hour", watar "water", pahhuar (pahhur) "fire", mehur "time".


N.-A. uttar eshar (essar; §28b) lammar
Gen. uddanas eshanas (esnas; §28b)  
D.-L. uddani eshani lamni
Abl. uddanaz(a) (uddananza; §60) eshanaz(a) (esnaza; §28b)  
Instr. uddanit (uddanta; §61) eshanta (§61)  

N.-A. watar pahhuwar (pahhur; §17a) mehur
Erg.   pahhuenanza  
Gen. witenas pahhuenas mehunas
D.-L. weteni pahhueni (pahhuni; §16) mehueni (mehuni; §16)
All. wetena    
Abl. wetenaz(a) pahhuenaz (pahhunaz(a))  
Instr. wetenit (wedanda; §61) pahhuenit  


N.-A. uddār widār  
Gen. uddanas AHI.A-as  
D.-L. uddanas   mehunas

83) b) Abstracts in -ātar and -tar

paprātar "dirtiness", lahhiyatar "countryside", zankilatar "sorrow"; huitar "faun" (partly with ablaut ; -tn- does not transform into -nn-).


N.-A. paprātar   zankilatar huitar
Gen. paprannas     huitnas (§32a2)
D.-L. papranni lahhiyanni zankilanni  
Abl. paprannaz(a)      
Instr.       huitnit


N.-A.   lahhiyatar zankilatar HI.A (zankilatarri HI.A)  

84) c) Abstracts in -essar

hannessar "business", uppessar "sending" (with ablaut)

N.-A. hannessar uppessar uppessar HI.A
Erg.     uppesnantēs
Gen. hannesnas (hannissanas; §10, 26)    
D.-L. hannesni (hannassani; §11, 26) uppesni  
Abl. hannesnaz (hannisnanza; §10, 60)    
Instr. hannesnit    

85) d) Words in -war

All with ablaut ; till now, only in the singular : asawar "enclosure, fence ", partawar "handle".

Nom.-Acc. asawar partawar
Gen.   partaunas
D.-L. asauni  
Abl. asaunaz partaunaz
Instr.   partaunit

This group is close to the inflection of the verbal substantive in -war, without being strictly identical.

86) e) Words in -mar

hilammar "gate". Here too, only in the singular.

Nom.-Acc. Éhilammar
Gen. (É)hilamnas (hilannas? ; §32b2)
D.-L. (É)hilamni
All. hilamna
Abl. (É)hilamnaz

This group is close to the inflection of the verbal substantive in -mar, without being strictly identical.

87) Miscellaneous consonant stems

Always neuter and attested only in the singular.

N.-A. nepis ais isqaruh (iskarih)
Gen. nepisas issas  
D.-L. nepisi (nepis; §59d1) issi (aissi) isqaruhi
All. nepisa    
Abl. nepisaz(a) (nepisanza; §60) issaz  
Instr.   issit isgaruhit

88) Blend of n-stems and vocalic stems

a) Some substantives are inflected partly as a-stems and partly as n-stems. Thus for example memiya(n)- "word, speech", arkamma(n)- "tribute", hara(n)- "eagle", alkista(n)- "branch (?)", muri(yan)- "grape fruit" (all of common gender).


Nom. memiyas arkammas haras MUŠEN (ĜIŠ)alkistas mures
Acc. memiyan arkamman haran (hāranan) alkistanan  
Gen. memiyanas arkammanas haranas    
D.-L. memiyani (memini; §14a1)        
Abl. memiyanaz (meminaza; §14a1)        
Instr. meminit (§14a1)       murinit


Nom.     hāranis MUŠEN    
Acc. memiyanus (memiyanes; §63a; memiyas) arkammus (argamanus)   ĜIŠalkistanus muriyanus (murius)

b) The very variable inflection of kutru(wan)- comm. "witness" can be interpreted in the same way :

  Singular Plural
Nom. kutruwas kutruēs (kutruwas, kutrus; §17a; kutruwanes, kutruenes; §17b)
D.-L. kutrui kutruas

89) Irregular inflection

a) The two neuter roots kard- "heart" (ideogr. ŠÀ) and parn- "house" (ideogr. É) have their N.-A. Sg built by lengthening the vowel of the roots *kēr and *pēr :

  Singular Plural
N.-A. ŠÀ-ir pir kir É-ir
Gen. kardiyas (stem in -i) parnas    
D.-L. kardi parni (É-i; §59d1)   parnas
All. karta parna    
Abl. kartaz parnaza    
Instr. kardit      

b) The unusual inflection of the expression hassa hanzassa "grand-son and grand-grand-son (?)" is not well understood :

  Singular Plural
Nom. hassa hanzassa hasses hanzasses
Acc. hassa hanzassa hassus hanzassus
D.-L. hassi hanzassi hassas-sas hanzassas-sas
Instr. hassit hanzassit  

3. Adjective comparison

93) Hittite does not form the adjective comparative by means of a suffix as it is the case in other I.E. languages. Comparison is expressed by the only adjective, and it can be detected only thanks to the context.

94) a) However, one can recognize a suffix -zi- in hantezzi- "first", appezzi- "last", sarazzi- "superior" and sanezzi- "sweet".

b) kattera- "inferior" is constructed differently, but with a similar function.

95) kattera- is inflected as an a-stem, the others as substantives in -i with some variations like ya-stems :


Nom. comm. hantezzis (hantezziyas) appizzis (appizziyas) sarazzis sanezzis katterras
Acc. comm. hantezzin (hantezziyan) appizzin (appizziyan) sarazziyan sanezzin katteran
N.-A. n. hantezzi appizzi sarazzi sanezzi kattera
Gen. hantezziyas        
D.-L. hantezzi appizziya sarazzi   katteri
Abl. hantezziyaz appizziyaz sarazziyaz sanizziyaz  
Instr.       sanizzit  


Nom. comm. hantezzēs (hantezzius, hantezziyas) appizzēs UGU-azzis (UGU-azzius)   katterēs (katterrus)
Acc. comm.       sanizzius  
D.-L. hantezziyas