1. Personal pronouns

96) Independant forms of the 1st and 2nd persons

  "I" "you" (sg.) "we" "you" (pl.)
Nom. uk (ammuk) zik wēs (anzās) sum(m)ēs (sum(m)ās)
Acc. ammuk (uk) tuk anzās sum(m)ās (sum(m)ēs)
Gen. ammēl tuēl anzēl sumēl (sum(m)enzan)
D.-L. ammuk tuk anzās sum(m)ās (sum(m)ēs)
Abl. ammēdaz(a) tuēdaz(a) anzēdaz sum(m)ēdaz

97) a) Old-Hittite uses the forms uk, wēs and sumēs only for Nominative ; ammuk, anzās and sumās are used only for Dative and Accusative. Neo-Hittite borrowed the Accusative for the Nominative, and the forms uk and wēs have nearly vanished. The use of the Nominative sumēs for the Accusative is explained by a borrowing of the Nominative (§63a). The identity of the forms for Accusative and Dative such as sumēs shows a glide toward the Dative. Also, the Nominative form uk moved toward the Dative. On the opposite, zik and tuk have not merged.

b) Old-Hittite has a form sumenzan "your (pl.)" ; sumēl is a more recent form.

98) The pronoun apā- is used as an independant pronoun of the 3rd person ; cf. §111ff.

99) The suffix -il(a) expresses reflexion : ukila (ukel) "myself", zikila "yourself", sumāsila "yourselves", apāsila "himself" (Pl. Nom. apāsila, Acc. apāsilus!).

100) Enclitics for Dative and Accusative


-mu "me, to me" -nas "us, to us "
-ta (-du before -za; §40) "you, to you (sg.)" -smas "you, to you (pl.)"
-si "to him" (Dat. only) -smas "to them" (Dat. only)

b) Examples with nu "and" : nu-mu "and to me", nu-tta "and to you (sg.)" (§39), nu-ssi "and to him", nu-nnas "and to us", nu-smas "and to you (pl.), and to them".

nu-mu-asta "and then (?) to me" becomes numasta (§38a).

Reflexive pronouns

101) The reflexive pronouns are expressed by the corresponding personal pronouns or by means of the particle -za (-z).

The pronominal enclitic root -a- "he, she, it"

102) a) For the Nominative and the Accusative of the pronoun of the 3rd person, particular forms of the root -a- are used ; with -si "to him" and -smas "to them", they form a whole paradigm :

  Singular Plural
Nom. comm. -as old -e, neo -at
Acc. comm. -an old -us, neo -as
N.-A. n. -at old -e, neo -at

This enclitic -a- comes probably from a weakened form of the accentuated demonstrative a- "this" (§116).

b) For the Nom. Pl. comm., Old-Hittite has kept the I.E. form of the pronoun Nom. Pl. -e < *-oi, whereas Neo-Hittite has used the form at first Sg., then Pl. of the neuter -at.

103) a) nu "and" and the older words ta "and" and su "and" combine with these forms according to §38a and b to give n-as, t-as, s-as "and he", n-at, t-at "and it", n-an, t-an, s-an "and him" (Acc. Sg.), n-e, tā (< *ta-e), s-e, n-at "and they", n-us (n-as), t-us (t-as), s-us (s-as) "and them" (Acc.Pl.).

b) Attached to nu and the particle -wa(r)- of quotation, it becomes : nu-war-as "and he", nu-war-an "and him" (Acc. Sg.), nu-war-at "and it", nu-war-i "and they" (Nom. Pl.; -i instead of -e; §9a 102a).

c) It is not sure whether the Neuter -it "it" in the expression netta "and it for you (sg.)" (< *nu-it-ta ?) comes from a root -i- "he". It could be a form nu-e-ta (N.-A. Pl. n.) with a semantic change "and he for you" > "and it for you".

104) -as, -at, etc... are sometimes doubled : nassiyas (< *nu-as-si-as) next to nassi (< *nu-as-si) "and he for him", natsiyat (< *nu-at-si-at) next to natsi (< *nu-at-si) "and it for him".

Isolated pronouns of the 3rd person

105) a) The following Sg. oblique forms are built from a root si- "he, she, it" :

Gen. sēl
D.-L. sētani
Abl. sēz

The Dative enclitics -si "to him" and -smas "to them" (§100a) maybe come from the same root.

b) On the other hand, there is no Nominative or Accusative form coming from a root sa-. The forms Sg. Nom. comm. sas, Acc. comm. san and Pl. Nom. comm. se, Acc. comm. sus of Old-Hittite, that have been understood for long as irreducible forms, are in fact built from the ancient and rare word su "and" and the enclitic pronoun -a- "he" (§103a) like nas < *nu-as.

2. Possessive pronouns and adjectives

106) a) Neo-Hittite has borrowed its possessive pronouns from the Genitive of the personal pronouns : ammēl attas "my father", tuēl anni "to your (sg.) mother", etc...

b) For a possible use of the personal pronouns instead of the possessive pronouns, cf §213b2.

107) Old-Hittite still has independent possessive adjectives that are sometimes found in Neo-Hittite in set phrases. They are always enclitic :

-mi- "my"  
-ti- "your (sg.)" -smi- "your (pl.)"
-si- "his" -smi- "their"

The possessive adjective of the 1st Pl. person is not attested.

108) These adjectives are inflected as a blend of a- and i-stems :


Nom. comm. -mis -tis (-tes) -sis -smis -smes
Acc. comm. -min (-man) -tin -sin (-san)   -sman
N.-A. n. -mit (-met) -tit -sit (-set) -smet (-semet) -smet (-smit, -semet, -samet, -simit, -summit)
Voc. -mi        
Gen. -mas -tas -sas    
D.-L. -mi -ti (-di) -si -smi -smi (-summi)
All. -ma -ta -sa   -sma
Instr.   -tit -set (-sit)   -smit


Nom. comm. -mis -tis (-tes) -ses (-sis) -smes  
Acc. comm. -mus (-mis; §63a) -tus (-dus) -sus   -smus
N.-A. n. -mit (-met)   -set    
Gen. man (§62a)        
D.-L.   -tas     -smas

109) a) The possessive adjective agrees in case and number with the substantive : Gen. Sg. kardiyas-tas "of your (sg.) heart", D.-L. Sg. kissari-mi "in my hand", atti-ssi "to his father", istarni-smi "in their center", Nom. Pl. aresmes < *arēs-smēs (§19a) "your (pl.) friends", Acc. Pl. sarhuwandus-sus "her unborn children".

The final -n of the Acc. Sg. of the substantive is assimilated according to §36a1 with the initial of the possessive : Acc. Sg. halugatallattin < *halugatallan-tin "your (sg.) envoy" (next to halugatallan-min "my envoy", without assimilation), tuzzi-man < *tuzzin-man "my army", arha-ssan < *arhan-san "his border".

b) In the Neo-Hittite era, the separation between the two elements is less and less felt. Following constructions like attas-sis "his father" (Nom. Sg.) : attassin < *attan-sin "his father" (Acc. Sg.), one builds the Nom. Sg. attas-mis "my father", but the Acc. Sg. attasmin and attasman "my father", as well as attastin "your (sg.) father", as if the inflection only affected the end of the group.

3. Demonstrative pronouns

110) The declension of the following pronouns is clearer than those already seen. The endings are :

  Singular Plural
Nom. comm. -s -ē, -ēs, -us
Acc. comm. -n -us
N.-A. n. -t, - -ē, -
Gen. -ēl (-ēdas) -ēnzan (-ēl)
D.-L. -ēdani (-ēdi) -ēdas
Abl. -ēz (-ēdaz) -ēz
Instr. -(i)t  

111) The most important pronouns are kā- "this, hic" and apā- "that, is". apā- is also used as a pronoun for the 3rd person with the meaning "he, she".

For apāsila "himself", cf. §99.


Nom. comm. kās apās kē, kūs (kēus) apē, apūs
Acc. comm. kūn (kān) apūn (apān) kūs (; §63a) apūs (apē; §63a)
N.-A. n. (; §10) apāt (; §10) apē
Gen. kēl apēl kēnzan (kēdas) apēnzan (apēdas)
D.-L. kēdani (kēti) apēdani (apēti) kēdas apēdas
Abl. kēz (kēzza) apēz (apizza) kizza  
Instr. kēt (kēdanda) apit (apēdanda)    

113) a) In Nom. Pl., the Old-Hittite forms and apē, coming from the I.E. era, are replaced in Neo-Hittite by the inflected forms kūs and apūs coming from an analogical construction with the noun, or, according to §63b from a borrowing of the Acc. Pl.

b) The occasional form of the Acc. Pl. comes, according to §63a, from a borrowing of the Nominative form.

c) The unique form kēus of the Nom. Pl. comes from the form to which has been added the pleonastic Nominative ending -us.

114) From kā- and apā- are derived several adverbs :

a) "here", apiya "there ; then" ; kēt "to here", apēda "over there" ; kēz "from here", apēz "from there".

b) apidda "over there", apidda (apiddan, apēda ; also apidda(n) ser) "therefore".

c) kissan "thus, consequently", slightly different apēnissan "thus".

d) From the root kā- is derived the interjections kāsa "look!" and kāsma "look!".

115) Two pronominal adjectives are built from kissan and apēnissan with the meaning "such" (also "so much") : kissuwant- "τοιόσδε" and pēnissuwant "τοιοῦτος". Their declension is like humant- (§77).

116) A defective demonstrative root a- with the meaning "here" gives the following forms :

  Singular Plural
Nom. comm.   *e in eš-ta (= *e-sta "thus them ?")
D.-L. edani edas
Abl. ediz (etez, edaza)  

117) The roots eni-, uni- and anni-, all meaning "that (afore mentioned)" are designated as "half-inflected". They are maybe already deictic particles.

a) One finds from uni- an Acc. Sg. comm. unin, a Nom.-Acc. Sg n. uni (also with a plural meaning) and a Nom. and Acc. Pl. comm. unius.

b) One finds from eni- the Nom. Sg. comm. enis, the N.-A. Sg. n. eni (also with a plural meaning) and an Acc. Pl. comm. enius. As for kissan, one finds an adverb enissan "as afore mentioned".

c) One finds from anni- only a Nom. Sg. comm. annis. From this root are derived the adverbs annaz and annisan "formerly".

118) One finds in texts the word often uninflected asi- "the previous", used in the Nom. and the Acc. Sg. at all genders. One also finds the Nom. Sg. comm. asis.

4. Interrogative and relative pronouns

119) Nearly only the root kui- produces alive paradigms. It is used to form interrogative and relative substantives and adjectives.

  Singular Plural
Nom. comm. kuis kuēs (kuēus; §63b)
Acc. comm. kuin kuēus (kuēs, kuis, kuē; §63a)
N.-A. n. kuit kuē
Gen. kuēl  
D.-L. kuēdani kuēdas
Abl. kuēz (kuēzza)  

120) a) The general relatives are kuis kuis, kuis-as kuis "whoever", kuis imma, kuis imma kuis, kuis-as imma, kuis-as imma kuis "whoever else".

  Singular Plural
N.-A. n.   kuē kuē
Gen. kuēl imma  
D.-L. kuēdani (imma) kuēdani kuēdas kuēdas
Abl. kuēz imma kuēz  

b) kuissa "that" (§125a) can also be used with the meaning "whatever".

121) A pronoun derived from kui- is built with the ethnic suffix : kuenzumna- "he who comes from".

122) A parallel stem kua- (< I.E. *kwo-) has been used to build an adverb from the original form of the N.-A. Sg. n. kuwat "why?" (phonetically < kwod) as well as other adverbs like kuwapi "where" and its derivatives, and kuwatta(n) "where, to where" (kuwattan sēr "why").

123) a) From an unattested interrogative-relative stem ma- is built masi- "how much " with the following forms :

  Singular Plural
Nom. comm.   masēs
Acc. comm. masin  
N.-A. n.   masē

b) From masi- are built masiyant- and masiwant-, both meaning "as much as", with an inflection close to hūmant- "whole" (§77).

5. Indefinite pronouns

124) kuiski comm., kuitki n. is used for the substantive "someone, something" and the adjective "a, an". UL kuiski comm., UL kuitki n. is used for the substantive "no one, nothing" and the adjective "no, not any ".

125) a) kuissa (kuisa), made of kuis and -a "and", means "each one " (and also "whoever" ; §120b).

b) kuis - kuis means "the one - the other".

126) Inflection of kuiski and kuis(s)a :

Nom. c. kuiski kuissa (kuisa) kuēsqa kuesa
Acc. c. kuinki kuinna kuiusga kuiussa
N.-A. n. kuitki kuitta kuēqa (kuēqqa, kuēkki)  
Gen. kuēlqa (kuēlga, kuēlka, kuēlki) kuēlla    
D.-L. kuēdanikki (kuēdanikka) kuēdaniya kuedasqa  
Abl. kuēzqa kuēzzi(ya)    

127) tamai- "other" is inflected half as a pronoun, half as a noun. dapiya- "each, all" is also used to build isolated pronominal forms. Inflection :

Nom. comm. damais   damaus (§63b)  
Acc. comm. damain   damaus  
N.-A. n. tamai dapiyan (dapin; §14a1) tamāi  
Gen. dammēl (tamēdas) dapias   dapidas
D.-L. damēdani dapi damēdas dapias
All. tamatta (tamēda)      
Abl. tamēdaz (damēdaza) dapiza (dapidaz)    

128) From damai- "other" are built :

a) an adjective dameli- "different" (Sg. Acc. comm. damelin, D.-L. dammeli),

b) an adverb dameda "elsewhere".