The verb

1. Derivation

135) The derivation of verbs thanks to suffixes is the biggest part of the chapter.

136) -ahh- is a denominative with the meaning "to do what the base word means" and "to bring to a (natural and continuous) state" : sarazziyahh- "to put right on top" (sarazzi- "superior, paramount"), nakkiyahh- "to make difficult" (nakki- "difficult"), idālawahh- "to act badly" (idālu- "nasty"), kururiyahh- "to make war" (kurur "hostility"), 3-yahh- (i.e. *triyahh-) "to triple", 4-iyahh- "to quadruple".

137) -annāi- expresses a persistence, somehow like a durative : iya- "to go , to march" iyannāi- "to march continuously", parh- "to chase" parhannāi- "to chase continuously", walh- "to strike" walhannāi- "to strike continuously".

The durative is often used with the iterative in -sk- (§141) : walh- "to strike" walhannesk- "to strike unceasingly", hēwāi- "to rain" hēwannesk- "to rain unceasingly the whole day".

138) -es- is a denominative with the meaning "to become what the base word means" : idālawes- "to become nasty, to quarrel" (idālu- "nasty"), parkues- "to become pure" (parkui- "pure"), salles- "to grow , to increase" (salli- "tall"), makkes- "to become many, to grow" (mekki- "much").

139) The infix -nin- is used, like the more frequent suffix -nu- (§140), in order to build the causative of some verbs : hark- "to collapse" harnink- "to throw down", istark- "to be ill" istarnink- "to make ill".

140) a) The suffix -nu- is the usual way to build the causative of verbe : ar- "to stay" arnu- "to send", war- "to burn" warnu- "to set on fire", link- "to swear" linganu- "to administer the oath", hark- "to collapse" harganu- "to throw down", weh- "to turn" wahnu- "to turn over".

b) There is sometimes no difference between a verb and the one with -nu- : pahs- and pahsanu- "to protect".

c) Occasionally, -nu- is used like -ahh- (§136) in order to build verbs from nouns with the meaning "to act according to the base word by modifying a former state" : maliskunu- "to weaken" (malisku- "weak"), dassanu- "to strengthen" (dassu- "strong"), sallanu- "to lengthen, to stretch" (salli- "tall"), tepnu- "to lessen" (tepu- "few"), parkunu- "to cleanse" (parkui- "pure"), esharnu- "to make bloody" (eshar- "blood").

141) a) One can build for each verbal root a form with the suffix -sk-, with a meaning close to the iterative, even though its use is a bit more complex : da- "to take" dask- "to take several times", pāi- "to give" pesk- "to give several times", ep- "to grab" appisk- "to grab several times", hatrāi- "to write" hatresk- "to write several times", eku- "to drink" akkusk- "to drink several times", punus- "to ask" punusk- (< *punus-sk-; §19a) "to ask several times".

b) Some peculiar forms : ar- "to stay" ar(a)sk- "to stay several times" (§22), sipand- "to make a libation" sipanzak- (i.e. *sipand-sk-; §22) "to make libations several times", ed- "to eat" azzikk- "to adore" (§22), dāi- "to put" zikk- "to put several times" (§24), kuen- "to strike" kuask- (§11. 31a) "to strike several times" (next to kuennisk-), hanna- "to judge", hannesk- and hassik- "to judge several times" (§22. 31a), aus- "to see" usk- "to see several times".

c) 1. Because of its frequent use, -sk- is often used along with other suffixes : arnusk- "to bring several times", harninkisk- "to throw down several times", kururiyahhesk- "to keep on making war".

2. In particular, the durative in -annāi- (§137) is often followed by the iterative suffix -sk- : walh- "to strike" walhannesk- "to always strike continuously", pars- "to break" parsiyannesk- "to break one after the other".

d) One seldom finds the suffix -ss- borrowed from Luwian instead of -sk- : essa- "to do several times" (iya- "to do"), halzessa- "to call several times" (halzāi- "to call").

142) Occasionally, a phenomenon of reduplication of the verbal root occurs : wek- and wewak- "to wish, to ask", kis- and kikkis- "to become", kikki- instead of ki- "(to lie =) to start" ; cf. also pappars- "to spring", katkattenu- "to make snort", asas- "to sit", wariwarant- = warant- "burning".

For an iterative meaning of the forms with reduplication, cf. the replacement of wewakkinun "I demanded immediatly" in KBo III 4 II 11 by the iterative wekiskinun in the copy 888/c III 9.

143) a) As in the other I.E. languages, Hittite uses particles to modify the meaning of verbal roots. Hittite exhibits here an archaic side since particles are always written as independant words and small words can be placed between the particle and the verb.

b) The most important particles are : anda (andan) "to the inside", appa (appan) "back, again", arha "away", katta (kattan) "downwards ; in addition, with", parā "forward ; out", piran "ahead", sarā "upwards, up", sēr "above" ; e.g. pāi- "to go" anda pāi- "to go into", appa pāi- "to go back", appan pāi- "to go after", arha pāi- "to go away", parā pāi- "to go on ; to go out", sarā pāi- "to go up" ; dā- "to take" appa(n) dā- "to take back", arha dā- "to take away", parā dā- "to take out", katta(n) dā- "to take down", sarā dā- "to take up ; to take, to catch".

c) 1. A verb can have several particles at the same time : appa(n) anda pāi- "to go into again", sēr arha dā- "to take up away", appa sarā dā- "to take up again".

2. The particle awan is used only with another particle, e.g. awan arha "away", awan katta "downwards". It is difficult to define its precise meaning.

144) a) Unlike the isolated particles, the prefixes u- "here" and pē- "there" are indissociably attached to the verb : uda- (ueda-) "to bring", pēda- "to send" ; uiya- "to bring", peya- "to send" ; unna- "to pull", penna- "to push". The relation between uizzi "he comes" and pāizzi "he goes" as well as between the pair uwate- "to bring" and pehute- "to send" is less clear.

b) However, it happens that the particle pē- "there" occurs as isolated (especially as a complement of hark- "to hold"), and that particles are inserted between it and the verb : pē harzi "he produces", pē-pat harkanzi "they also produce".

2. Inflection

145) The Hittite verb has two conjugations, named from the ending of the 1st pers. Sg. Pres. : the mi-conjugation and the hi-conjugation.

146) There are two voices : the active voice and the medio-passive voice. The second one is used for the middle, as in Greek or Indo-Iranian, for the passive and for the deponent verbs (i.e. verbs with an active meaning conjugated at the medio-passive voice).

147) a) The inflection system of the verb is very simple : there are two simple tenses, present (also used for future) and preterite, and two modes, indicative and imperative. Some compound tenses are built with auxiliary verbs (§184. 259).

b) The verb is conjugated with two numbers, singular and plural. There is no dual.

148) There are some verbal names, namely the infinitives I and II, the supine and the verbal substantive, as well as a participle, of passive meaning for transitive verbs and active meaning for intansitive verbs.

149) Outline of the endings :

mi-conj. hi-conj. mi-conj. hi-conj.
Indicative present
Sg. 1.
-mi -hi (-ahhi) -hahari (-hari, -ha) -hahari (-hari)
-si -ti -tati (-ta) -tati (-ta)
-zi -i -tari (-ta) -ari (-a)
Pl. 1.
-weni -weni -wastati (-wasta) -wastati (-wasta)
-teni -teni -duma (-dumari) -duma
-anzi -anzi -antari (-anta) -antari (-anta)

Indicative preterite
Sg. 1.
-un (-nun) -hun -hahat(i) (-hat(i)) -hahat(i) (-hat(i))
-s (-t, -ta) -s (-ta, -sta) -tat(i) (-ta) -at(i) (-tat)
-t (-ta) -s (-ta, -sta) -tat(i) (-ta) -at(i)
Pl. 1.
-wen -wen -wastat -
-ten (-tin) -ten (-tin) -dumat -dumat
-er (-ir) -er (-ir) -antat(i) -antat(i)

Sg. 1.
-(a)llu -allu -haharu (-haru) -haharu (-haru)
- (-i, -t) - (-i) -hut(i) -hut(i)
-du -u -taru -aru
Pl. 1.
-weni -weni - -
-ten (-tin) -ten (-tin) -dumat(i) -dumat(i)
-andu -andu -antaru -antaru

Verbal substantive Infinitive Supine Participle
-war I. -wanzi -wan -ant-
  II. -anna    

150) In Neo-Hittite, the following tendencies develop :

a) 1. The ending -ti of the 2. Pers. Sg. Pres. of the hi-conjugation sneaks into the mi-conjugation : epsi and epti "you grab (sg.)", harsi and harti "you hold (sg.)", Old-H. istamassi Neo-H. istamasti "you hear (sg.)", karussiyasi and karussiyatti "you keep silent (sg.)", harnikti "you ruin (sg.)", maniyahti "you handle (sg.)".

2. More rarely, the ending -si of the same person can be found in the hi-conjugation : normaly wastatti and rarely wastasi "you sin (sg.)".

b) 1. The verbs in -ahh- (§136), that are conjugated according to the mi-conjugation, can build their 3. Pers. Sg. Pres. and Pret. according to the hi-conjugation : dasuwahzi and dasuwahhi "he dazzles", isiyahta and isiyahhis "he searched".

2. Consequently, for huittiya- "to drag", 3. Sg. Pres. huittiyazi and huittiyai.

c) Conversely, the inflection of the 3. Pers. Sg. Pret. and Imp. of the mi-conjugation can be used in the hi-conjugation : akis and akta "he is dead", aku and akdu "he must die".

d) Some verbs are conjugated with both conjugations : dalahhi and daliyami "I let". Several examples can be found at §178. A lot of verbs exhibit small irregularities that cannot all be listed in this grammar. The lexicon should be used instead.

151) Particularities of the mi-conjugation :

a) The 2. Pers. Sg. Pres. rarely ends in -zi : istamaszi "you hear (sg.)".

b) Neo-Hittite often builds the 2. Pers. Sg. Pret. from the 3. Pers. Sg. : Old-H. iyas Neo-H. iyat "you did (sg.)" (same as iyat "he did"), Old-H. sallanus "you made larger (sg.)" sallanut "he made larger", Neo-H. tittanut "you put (sg.)" and "he put".

c) At the 1. Pers. Sg. Imp., es- "to be" has, along with the regular form asallu "I want to be", the irregular forms eslut and eslit "I want to be".

152) Particularities of the hi-conjugation :

a) 1. The 3. Pers. Sg. Pres. of the hi-conjugation has sometimes an ending -ai instead of -i : sipandi "he sacrifices" and rarely sippandai, arri "he washes" and sometimes arrai.

2. Also at the 3. Pers. Pl. Pret. : sipantir "they sacrificed" and the isolated form sippantair.

b) Conversely, the form of the 3. Pers. Sg. Pres. wastai (root wasta- + ending -i) of the verb wasta- "to sin" is also written wasti.

c) At the 3. Pers. Sg. Pres., one finds parsiya "he breaks" (§178) with -a instead of -i, probably by dissimilation of the preceding -i-.

153) At the Pret. and Imp. of the medio-passive, the forms with an ending -i of Old-Hittite (-(ha)hati, -tati, -ati, -antati, -huti and -dumati) correspond to the forms without -i of Neo-Hittite (-(ha)hat, -tat, -at, -antat, -hut and -dumat).

A. Active inflection

I. mi-Conjugation

1. Consonant stems

154) a) Monosyllabic stems with one final consonant : es- "to be", ep- "to grab", nah- "to fear", ās- "to stay", ses- "to sleep", wek- "to require", eku- "to drink" (i.e. *ekw-) :

Indicative Present

1. esmi epmi nahmi  
2. essi epsi (epti; §150a1) nahti (§150a1)  
3. eszi epzi nehi āszi
1. esuwani eppueni nehueni  
2.   epteni (apteni; §11) nahteni  
3. asanzi appanzi   āssanzi

1. sesmi wekmi ekumi
2.   wekti (§150a1) ekussi (ekutti)
3. seszi wekzi ekuzi (ekuzazzi, ezzazi, §155)
1. sesueni   akueni (ekuwani, akuwani, ekueni)
2.     ekutteni
3. sesanzi (sasanzi) wek(k)anzi akuwanzi (ekuwanzi)

Indicative Preterite

1. esun eppun nah(h)un  
2. esta epta   āsta
3. esta epta (ipta) nahta  
1. esuen eppuen (appuen)    
2. esten epten    
3. esir eppir   āsser

1. sesun wek(k)un ekun
3. sesta wekta ekutta
1. sesuen wekuen ekuen
3. sēser weker ekuer


1. asallu (eslut, eslit)      
2. es ep nāhi  
3. esdu epdu (eptu)   āsdu
2. esten epten    
3. asandu appandu    

2. sēs wek eku
3. sesdu   ekuddu
2. sesten wekten ekutten
3.     akuwandu

Verbal subst.
esuwar Gen. nahhuwas sesuwar wekuwar
Inf. I
eppuwanzi āssuwanzi sesuwanzi
asant- appant- nahhant- āssant- sasant- wekant- akuwant-

155) b) Similar, with the insertion of an -s- between the root and the ending : ed- "to eat", mat- "to support", ispart- "to escape" :

Indicative Present

1. edmi    
2. ezzassi mazatti  
3. ezzazzi (ezzai; §150b2) mazzazzi (mazzi) isparzazzi (isparzizi, isparzai, §150b2)
1. eduwani (atueni)    
2. ezzatteni (azzasteni)    
3. adanzi    

Indicative Preterite

1. edun   isparzahhun (hi-conj.)
2.   mazzasta isparzasta
3. ezta mazzasta isparzas (isparzasta)
3. eter   isparter (isparzir)


2. et (ezza, ezzazza)    
3. ezzaddu    
2. ezzatten (ezzasten)    
3. adandu (ezzandu)    

Inf. II adanna    
Part. adant-   isparzant-

156) c) Similar, with ablaut (§18) : kuen- "to strike, to kill", huek- "to swear" (and huek- "to throw down") :

Indicative Present

1. kuemi (§31a)   hukmi
2. kuesi (§31a) (kuenti, §150a1)    
3. kuenzi kuerzi (kuirri) huekzi (hukzi)
1. kuennummeni    
2. kuenatteni    
3. kunanzi (kuennanzi) kuranzi hukanzi

Indicative Preterite

1. kuenun (kuenunun)    
2. kuinnesta    
3. kuenta kuerta huekta
1. kueun (§31a) (kuinnummen)   hugawen
.2 kuenten    
3. kuennir kuerir  


2. kuen(n)i    
3. kuendu   huikdu
2. kuenten    
3. kunandu kurandu  

Verbal subst. Gen. kuennumas    
Inf. I kuennummanzi    
Inf. II kunanna kuranna hūkanna-
Part. kunant- (kuenniyant-) kurant- hūgant-

157) d) Monosyllabic with two final consonants ; cf. §22 and 23a : walh- "to strike", sanh- "to search", hark- "to collapse", karp- "to lift", link- "to swear".

Indicative Present

1. wa-al-ah-mi ša-an-ah-mi (ša-an-ha-mi)
2. wa-la!-ah-ši (§23c) ša-an-ah-ti (ša-na!-ah-ti, §23c; ša-an-ha-ti, ša-an-ha-ši)
3. wa-al-ah-zi ša-an-ah-zi (ša-an-ha-zi)
1. wa-al-hu-wa-ni (wa-al-ah-hu-e-ni)  
2. wa-al-ah-ta-ni ša-an-ah-te-ni (ša-an-ha-at-te-ni)
3. wa-al-ha-an-zi (wa-al-ah-ha-an-zi) ša-an-ha-an-zi

1.   kar-ap-mi  
2. har-ak-ti    
3. har-ak-zi kar-ap-zi (karpizzi, kar-ap-pí-iz-zi) li-in-ga-zi (li-ik-zi)
1. har-ku-e-ni   li-in-ku-e-ni (li-ku-wa-an-ni!)
2. har-ak-te-ni    
3. har-ki-ia-an-zi kar(-ap)-pa-an-zi, kar(-ap)-pí-an-zi li-in-kán-zi

Indicative Preterite

1. wa-al-hu-un (wa-al-ah-hu-un) ša-an-hu-un (ša-an-ah-hu-un, ša-ah-hu-un)
2. wa-al-ah-ta ša-an-ah-ta (ša-an-ha-ta, ša-ah-ta)
2. wa-al-ah-tin ša-an-ah-tin
3. wa-al-hi-ir ša-an-hi-ir

1.   kar-ap-pu-un li-in-ku-un
3. har-ak-ta kar-ap-ta li-in-ik-ta (li-in-kát-ta, li-in-kán!-ta [§31b], li-ik-ta)
1.     li-in-ku-en (li-in-ga-u-en)
3.   kar-pí(-e)-ir  


2. wa-al-ah ša-an-ha (ša-a-ah)
3.   ša-ah-du
2. wa-al-ah-tin ša-an-ha-at-tin (ša-a-ah-te-en)
3.   ša-an-ha-an-du

2.   kar-ap (kar-ap-pí-ia) li-in-ik (li-in-ki)
3. har-ak-du kar-ap-du  
.2   kar-ap-tin (kar-ap-pí-ia-at-tin) li-en-ik-tin
3.     li-in-kán-du

Verbal subst. wa-al-hu-wa-ar   kar-pu-wa-ar
Inf. I wa-al-hu-wa-an-zi ša-an-hu-wa-an-zi  
Inf. II     har-kán-na
Part. šanhant- harkant- kar(-ap)-pa-an-t- li-in-kán-t-

158) The root hark- "to hold, to have" is special in that it drops its k before an ending starting with a consonant whereas it keeps it before an ending starting with a vowel :

  Indicative Present Indicative Preterite
  Singular Plural Singular Plural
1. harmi harweni (harwani) harkun harwen
2. harsi (harti) harteni   harten
3. harzi harkanzi harta harkir
  Imperative Participe  
  Singular Plural    
2. har-ak harten    
3. hardu harkandu harkant-  

159) e) Polysyllabic stems : istamas- "to hear", punus- "to ask", hamenk- "to attach".

Indicative Present

1. istamasmi punusmi ha-ma-an-ga-mi
2. istamassi (istamasti, istamaszi)    
3. istamaszi punuszi ha-ma-an-ki
1.   punussueni  
2. istamasteni (istamastani)    
3. istamassanzi punussanzi hamankanzi (haminkanzi, hamangazi)

Indicative Preterite

1. istamassun punussun  
2.   punusta  
3. istamasta punusta ha-mi-ik-ta (ha-ma-ak-ta, ha-ma-an-kat-ta, ha-ma-na-ak-ta)
1.   punussuen  
2. istamasten    
3. istamassir punussir haminkir


2. istamas punus  
3. istamasdu punusdu  
2. istamasten punusten  
3. istamassandu punussandu hamankandu

Verbal subst. istamassuwar punussuwar hamenkuwar
Inf. I istamassuwanzi    
Participe istamassant-   hamenkant- (hamankant-)

160) f) Polysyllabic stems ; verbs in -es- and -ahh- : idalawes- "to become evil" ; idalawahh- "to behave badly", suppiyahh- "to clean", maniyahh- "to give back".

Indicative Present

1.   idalawahmi
2. idalawesti idalawahti (idalawatti, §28b)
3. idalaweszi idalawahzi
2. idalawesteni  
3. idalawessanzi idalawahhanzi

1. suppiyahmi maniyahmi
2.   maniyahti
3. suppiyahhi (§150b1) maniyahzi (maniyahhi)
3. suppiyahhanzi maniyahhanzi

Indicative Preterite

1.   idalawahhun
3. idalawesta HUL-ahta
1.   idalawahhuen
2.   HUL-ahten
3. HULMEŠ-sir  

1. suppiyahhun maniyahhun
2.   maniyahta
3. suppiyahhas maniyahda (maniyahhis)
3.   maniyahhir


2. suppiyah maniyah
2.   maniyahten

Verbal subst. suppiyahhuwar
Part. idalawahhant- maniyahhant-

2. Vocalic stems

161) a) Polysyllabic stems : uwate- "to bring", pehute- "to supply", wete- "to build", watku- "to jump".

Indicative Present

1. uwatemi pehutemi wedahhi  
2. uwatesi pehutesi wedasi  
3. uwatezzi (uwadazzi) pehutezzi wetezzi watkuz(z)i
1. uwateweni (uwatewani, uwatummeni)      
2. uwatetteni (uwatettani) pehutetteni    
3. uwadanzi pehudanzi wedanzi watkuwanzi

Indicative Preterite

1. uwatenun pehutenun wetenun (wedahhun, wetun)  
2. uwatet pehutet    
3. uwatet pehutet (pehutes) wetet (wedas) watkut
1. uwatewen   wetummen  
3. uwater pehuter weter  


2. uwate (uwati, uwatet) pehute    
3. uwateddu      
2. uwatetten (uwatatten) pehutetten    
3. uwadandu pehudandu wedandu  

Verbal subst.     wetummar watkuwar
Inf. I     wetummanzi  
Part.   pehudant-   watkuwant-

162) b) Monosyllabic stems : lā- "to detach", hā- "to believe, to trust", sā- "to be angry".

Indicative Present

  Singular Plural
1. lāmi hāmi    
2. lāsi hāsi    
3. lāi   lānzi sānzi

Indicative Preterite

  Singular Plural
1. lāun (lānun) hānun   lāwen
2. lāis hāis    
3. lāit   sāit  


  Singular Plural
2. lāi latten

Verbal subst.     sāwar
Part. lant- hānt- sānt-

163) c) The monosyllabic root te- "to speak" shares its paradigm with tar- "to speak" :

  Indicative Present Indicative Preterite
  Sg. Pl. Sg. Pl.
1. temi tarweni tenun  
2. tesi tarteni    
3. tezzi (and Luw. tardi) taranzi tet  
  Imperative Part. tarant-
  Sg. Pl.    
2. tet tetten    
3. teddu darandu    

164) d) The very frequent verbs pāi- "to go" and uwa- "to come" are special in that they make the transition with the verbs in -āi- :

Indicative Present

  Singular Plural
1. pāimi uwami (uwammi) paiweni (paiwani) uwaweni
2. pāisi (pāsi, pāitti) uwasi paitteni (paittani) uwatteni
3. pāizzi uizzi pānzi uwanzi (uenzi)

Indicative Preterite

  Singular Plural
1. pāun (pānun) uwanun (uwanunun) pāiwen (pāwen) uwawen
2.   uwas   uwatten
3. pāit (paitta) uit (uitti) pāir uer


  Singular Plural
2.       uwatten (uitten)
3. paiddu wuiddu (uwadu) pāndu (pāntu) uwandu

Verbal subst. pāwar uwawar
Inf. I pāwanzi uwawanzi
Part. pānt- uwant-

2. The 2. Pers. Sg. (and partly Pl.) of the Imperative of pāi- "to go " and uwa- "to come" are not commonly used (uwat "come!" is only found once). Instead, the following locutions are used :

a) for pāi- "to go" an independant and more frequent root i- "to go" with the Imperative 2. Pers. Sg. it "go!" and a Pl. itten "go!" ;

b) for uwa- "to come" the interjection ehu "here!" > "come!". ehu can also be used with a particle : andu ehu, parā ehu, kattan ehu.

3. āi-stems

165) hatrāi- "to write", kappuwāi- "to count, to examine", handāi- "to add", sarkuwāi- "to tighten".

Indicative Present

1. hatrāmi  
2. hatrāsi kapuesi (§17b)
3. hatrāizzi kappuwāizi (kappuezzi, §13a)
1. hatrāweni (hatrauni, §16)  
2.   kappuwatteni
3.   kappuwanzi (kappuenzi, §17b)

1. handāmi  
2. handāsi  
3. handāizzi (hantezzi, §13a, handāi) sarkuezzi (sarkuizzi)
3. handanzi  

Indicative Preterite

1. hatrānun kappuwanun
2. hatrāes kappuit (§13a)
3. hatrāit (hatrāes) kappuwāit (kappuet, §13a)
3. hatrāir  

1. handanun  
3. handāit sarkuit (and Luw. sarkutta)
1. handāuen  
3. handāir  


2. hatrāi kappuwāi (kappui, §13a)
3. hatrāu kappuwāiddu (kappuiddi, §13a)
2. hatratten kappuwatten
3.   kappuwandu

2. handāi sarkui (sarku, §16)
3. handaiddu  
3. handandu  

Verbal subst.   kappuwawar handāwar  
Inf. I     handawanzi  
Part. hatrant- kappuwant- handant- sarkuwant-

4. iya-stems

166) a) iya- "to do", tiya- "to move forward", wemiya- "to find", huitiya- "to pull".

Indicative Present

1. iyami (iyammi) tiyami
2. iyasi tiyasi
3. iyazi (iyazzi, iezi) tiyazi (tiez(z)i, tiyazzi, §14b)
1. iyaweni (iyawani) tiyaweni
2. iyatteni tiyatteni
3. iyanzi tiyanzi (tienzi)

1. wemiyami huittiyami
2. wemiyasi huittiyasi
3. wemiyaz(z)i (wemiezi) huittiazi (huittiezzi, huittiyai)
1. wemiyaweni  
2.   huittiyatteni
3. wemiyanzi huittiyanzi

Indicative Preterite

1. iyanun (iyaun) tiyanun
2. iyas (iyat, §151b) tiyat
3. iyat (iet) tiyat (tiet)
1. iyawen tiyawen
.2 iyatten  
3. ier tier

1. wemiyanun huittiyanun
3. wemiyat (wemit) huittiyat (huittit)
1. wemiyawen huittiyawen
3. wemiyer  


1. iyallu  
2. iya tiya
3. iyadu (iedu) tiyaddu
2. iyatten tiyatten
3. iyandu (iendu) tiyandu

2.   huitti
3. wemiyandu  

Verbal subst. iyawar tiyawar   huittiyawar
Inf. I iyawanzi tiyawanzi wemiyawanzi huittiyawanzi
Inf. II   tiyanna    
Part. iyant- tiyant- (tint-, §141a1)   huittiyant-

b) The verb huwāi- (hūya-) "to run, to flee" oscillates between āi-stem and iya-stem :

  Indicative Present Indicative Preterite
  Sg. Pl. Sg. Pl.
1. huyami hūyaweni huyanun  
2. huyasi (hueyasi)      
3. huwāi (huwāizzi) hūyanzi (huwanzi) huwais (huwas) huwair (huēr)

Verbal subst. Gen. huyawas
Part. huyant- (huwayant-)

5. Stems with infix -nin- (§139)

167) harnink- "to destroy", sarnink- "to replace", ninik- "to mobilize".

Indicative Present

1. harnikmi sarnikmi  
2. harnikti    
3. harnikti sarnikzi ninikzi
1.   sarninkueni  
2. harnikteni sarnikteni ninikteni
3. harninkanzi sarninkanzi nininkanzi

Indicative Preterite

1. harninkun sarninkun nininkun
2. harnikta    
3. harnikta sarnikta ninikta
3. harninkir   nininkir


2. harnik   ninik
3.   sarnikdu  
2. harnikten    
3. harninkandu   nininkandu

Verbal subst. harninkuwar   Gen. nininkuwas
Inf. I harninkuwanzi sarninkuwanzi  
Part. harninkant- sarninkant- nininkant-

6. Iteratives in -sk- (§141)

168) a) dask- "to take several times", pesk- "to give several times", usk- "to see often" (from aus-, §176), akkusk- "to drink a lot".

Indicative Present

1. daskimi peskimi    
2. daskisi peskisi uskisi (uskatti)  
3. daskizzi peskizzi uskizzi akkuskizzi
1. daskiwani (dasgaweni, §11. 20) pisgaweni    
2. daskitteni (daskatteni) piskatteni uskatteni akkuskittani
3. daskanzi peskanzi (paiskanzi) uskanzi akkuskanzi

Indicative Preterite

1. dasganun peskinun uskinun akkuskinun
2. daskes      
3. daskit peskit uskit akkuskit
1.     usgawen  
2.   peskatten    
3. daskir peskir (piskar, §11)   akkuskir


1.   piskellu    
2.   peski uski akkuski
3. daskiddu   uskiddu akkuskiddu
2. daskatten piskatten uskatten akkuskitten (akkuskatten)
3. daskandu (daiskandu) piskandu uskandu akkuskandu

Verbal subst.     uskiyawar  
Supine daskiwan peskiwan    
Part.     uskant-  

b) azzikk- "to adore", zikk- "to put several times", tarsikk- "to say several times" (§22b. 24)

Indicative Present

1.   zikkimi tarsikkimi
2.   zikkisi tarsik(k)isi
3. azzikizzi zikkizzi tarsikizzi (tar-aš-ki-iz-zi)
1.   zikkiuwani  
2. azzikkittani    
3. azzikkanzi zik(k)anzi tarsikkanzi (tar-aš-kán-zi)

Indicative Preterite

1. azzikkinun    
2.   zikkes tar-aš-ki-it
3.   zikkit  
1.     tar-aš-ki-u-en (tar-ši-ga-u-en)
3. azzik(k)ir zikkir  


2. azzikki zikki  
3. azzikkiddu zikkiddu  
2. azzikkitten (azzikkatten)    
3. azzikkandu    

Part.   zikkant-  

7. Causatives in -nu-

169) arnu- "to bring", wahnu- "to turn", pahsanu- (pahhasnu-, §26) "to insure", assanu- (asnu-, §26) "to prepare, to obtain".

Indicative Present

1. arnum(m)i wahnumi pahsanumi assanumi
2. arnusi wahnusi   assanusi (asnusi)
3. arnuz(z)i wahnuz(z)i   assanuz(z)i (asnuzi)
1. arnummeni wahnummeni    
2. arnutteni wahnutteni pahsanutteni (pahhasnutteni)  
3. arnu(w)anzi wahnuwanzi pahsanuwanzi assanuanzi (asnuwanzi)

Indicative Preterite

1. arnunun wahnunun   assanunun
3. arnut wahnut   assanut
1.   wahnum(m)en    
3. arnuir (arnuēr) wahnuir (wahnuēr) pahsanuir assanuir


1.       assanullu (asnullu)
2. arnut   pahhassanut asnut
3. arnuddu   pahsanuddu assanuddu
2. arnutten   pahhasnutten  
3. arnu(w)andu   pahhasnuandu  

Verbal subst. arnummar wahnumar (wahnuwar) pahsanummar assanuwawar (!, Gen. as(sa)num(m)as)
Inf. I   wahnummanzi pahsanummanzi (pahhassanumanzi) assanummanzi
Part. arnuwant- wahnuwant- pahsanuwant- (pahhasnuwant-, pahhassanuwant-)