B. Medio-passive inflection

179) The difference between mi- and hi-conjugations has no importance for medio-passive (cf. the outline of endings at §149). It is not taken into account in the following paradigms.

1. Consonant stems

180) ar- "to be placed", tarup- "to get together", es- "to be sat", kis- "to become", pahs- "to protect" (deponent).

Indicative Present

1. arhahari   eshahari
2. artati (artari)   estari
3. artari (arta) tarupta(ri) esari (esa)
1. arwasta   esuwasta(ri)
3. arantari (aranta) taruppantari esanta(ri) (asanta)

1. kishahari pahhasha
2. kistati (kista) pahhasta
3. kisari (kissari, kisa) pahsari
1.   pahsuwasta
2.   pahhasduma
3. kisandari (kisanta) pahsantari

Indicative Preterite

1. arhahat   eshahat (eshat, eshati, ishahat)
2. artat   estat
3. artat taruptat esat (esati, estat)
1. arwastat    
3. arantat (arandati) taruppantari esantat

1. kishahat (kishat, kishati) pahhashahat (pahhashat)
2. kisat (kistat)  
3. kisat (kisati) pahhastat
2. kisdummat  
3. kisantat(i)  


1. arhaharu        
2. arhut   eshut kishut  
3. artaru taruptaru esaru kasaru pahsaru
2. ardumat   esdum(m)at kisdumat pahhasdumat
3. arantaru taruppantaru   kisandaru pahsandaru

Verbal subst. taruppuwar      
Inf. II   asanna    
Part. taruppant- asant- kisant- pahsant-

2. Vocalic stems

181) iya- "to go, to march", nāi- (neya-) "to speak to", zahhiya- deponent "to fight" (or middle "to fight one another"), uwa- "to turn out, to appear" (middle of au(s)- "to see", §176 ; next to aus- deponent "to see"), ki- "to happen".

Indicative Present

1. iyahhari neyahhari zahhiyahha(ri)
2. iyattati (iyattari) neyattati (naista(ri))  
3. iyattari (iyatta) neyari (neya, niya(ri)) zahhiyattari
1.     zahhiyawastati
2. iyadduma   zahhiyadduma
3. iyantari (iyanta) neyantari (neyanta)  

3. uwaitta(ri) kittari (kitta)
3.   kiyantari (kiyanta, kianta)

Indicative Preterite

1. iyahhahat (iyahhat) neyahhat zahhiyahhat
2. iyattati    
3. iyattat neyat(t)at (neyaddat, neyat) zahhiyattat (zahhiyatta)
3. iyantat ne(y)antat (neyantati)  

1. uwahhat (aushahat)  
3. uwaittat (austat) kittat (kittati)
3. uwantat kiyantati


2. iyahhut naishut (neshut) zahhiyahhut
3. iyattaru neyaru  
2. iyaddumat naisdumat zahhiyaddumat
3. iyantaru neyandaru  

1. uwahharu  
3.   kittaru
2.   kiddumati
3. uwandaru  

Verbal subst.   neyawar    
Inf. I     zahhiyauwanzi  
Inf. II       uwanna
Part. iyant- neyant- zahhiyant-  

182) The medio-passive of war- "to burn" (intr.) exhibits a dissimilation of the final r with the root r : the 3rd Pers. Sg. Present is pronounced warāni < *warāri "it burns" (the 3rd Pers. Pl. is regular : warandari) and the 3rd Pers. Sg. Imper. warānu < *warāru "it must burn".

C. Compound forms

184) Hittite also has several compound verbal forms oddly similar to those of some modern languages.

a) The participle with es- is used to express :

1. the passive of transitive verbs : DUMU.MUNUS piyanza esta "a girl has been given",

2. a state for intransitive verbs : antuhsatar pān esta "the population was gone".

b) The perfect and pluperfect can be expressed, as in modern languages, by means of har(k)- "to have" (§158) with the participle at the N.-A. Sg. Neuter : iyan harmi "I have done", iyan harkun "I had done".

c) The expression "to begin to do something" is expressed by means of dāi- "to place, to put" with the supine in -uwan of a verb generally iterative : ERIN2MEŠ peskiwan dāir (tier) "they prepared to regularly give troops".

D. The verbal substantive

185) The verbal substantive in -war can be inflected according to its function :

a) the genitive is especially frequent ; it is not built like the stem in -war but like a shortened stem in -u- : pāwar "going", Gen. pāwas ; tiyawar "sitting" (from dāi-), Gen. tiyawas ; nininkuwar "quantity", Gen. nininkuwas ; turiyawar "harnessing", Gen. turiyawas ; arnummar (§29a) "bringing", Gen. arnummas ; tarnummar "leaving", Gen. tarnummas.

b) The other cases are not very frequent and are built differently :

1. Either from the shortened root in -u- (very rarely) : armahhuwar "impregnation", Abl. armahhuwaza ; hanessuwar "plastering", Abl. hanessuwaz.

2. More frequently from the whole root in -war, with or without the change -war/-wan- (-un-) :

α) With change : huittiyawar "pulling", D.-L. huittiyani ; assiyawar "love", Instr. assiyawannit ; miumar "prosperity", Instr. miumnit.

β) Without change (with preservation of the r in the whole paradigm) : wekuwar "demand", Abl. wekuwarraz ; arkuwar "prayer", N.-A. Pl. arkuwarri HI.A ; minumar "enriching", N.-A. Pl. minumarri HI.A (minumar HI.A).

186) The genitive of the verbal substantive looks like the Latin gerund : memiyas kuis iyawas "which thing (is the one) of the making" means finally "which thing (is) to be made", kuis arha tarnummas "who (is the one) of the leaving" means "who (is) to be left". Thus, these genitives of substantives can be interpretated as singular nominatives of adjectives. They can also be built for plural nominatives : next to kuis IKRIBU sarninkuwas "which prayer (is the one) of the atoning" i.e. "as atonement to be done" one finds the plural IKRIBI HI.A kuēs sarninkuēs "which prayers (are) to be done as atonement".

E. The infinitive

187) The difference between the infinitives in -uwanzi and in -anna can be summed up that way :

a) -anna builds the infinitive for all verbs with ablaut :

1. the root verbs with ablaut of the mi-conjugation : adanna (from ed- "to eat"), appanna (from ep- "to take"), akuwanna (from eku- "to drink"), kunanna (from kuen- "to kill"), hukanna (from huek- "to swear"),

2. the verbs with ablaut of the hi-conjugation : tiyanna (from dāi- "to put"), piyanna (from pāi- "to give") ; also in this category danna (from dā- "to take"),

3. secondarily and without a clear rule for some other verbs : waganna (from wak- "to bite"), harkanna (from hark- "to collapse"), tiyanna (next to tiyawanzi ; from tiya- "to walk"), tuhsanna (next to tuhsuwanzi ; from tuhs- "to cut , to split"), unuwanna (next to unuwanzi ; from unuwai- "to decorate"), hananna (next to hanumanzi ; from han- "to draw (water)").

b) -uwanzi builds :

1. the infinitive of all the other verbs of the mi- and hi-conjugations,

2. some isolated forms such as eppuwanzi (next to appanna ; from ep- "to take"), kuen(n)ummanzi (next to kunanna ; from kuen- "to kill") which are also verbs with ablaut.

Both forms of the infinitive are completely equivalent at the syntactic level (§272b).