J. Particles

1. Generalities

287) The following words are designated as particles in the strict sense : -wa (-war) of quotation, -pat "also, too, even", the positioning particles -kan and -san and the still poorly understood particles -(a)sta and -(a)pa (-ap), maybe too the enclitic conjunctions -a (-ya) "and" and -ma "but". In a broader sense, the enclitic pronominal forms (§§100 and 102) as well as the reflexive pronoun -za (-z) (§240 - 243) can be added. All these enclitic elements are affixed to the first accentuated word of the sentence and their abundance gives its peculiar character to the linking of the Hittite sentences, especially in Neo-Hittite.

288) If these enclitic words seem crowded, they are however affixed in a perfectly regular order :

1. The conjunctions -a (-ya) "and" and -ma "but" (§302 - 305. 318 f.) are at the first place.

2.The quotation particle -wa (-war) (§289 - 292) is at the second place.

3. The enclitic pronouns (§§100 and 102) and the reflexive pronoun -za (§240 ff.) come after the conjunctions and after -wa.

4. The particles -kan, -san, -(a)sta and -(a)pa (§294 - 301) end the series.

5. a) Several enclitic pronouns come before ; thus, the forms of the 3rd person (§102) are generally placed before the forms of §100 and before -za.

b) -za also follows the forms of §100.

Examples (with a reference to the numbering of the enclitics) : nu-mu-kan "and to me" (3. 4), n-at-mu "and he to me" (3. 5a), n-at-si "and it (they) to him" (3. 5a), n-as-za "and he himself" (3. 5a), nu-mu-za-kan "and to myself" (3. 4. 5b), kinun-as-mu-kan "now he to me" (3. 4. 5a), mahhan-ma-mu-kan "but while to me" (1. 3. 4), n-an-za(n) "and he himself" (3. 5a ; about -za(n), cf. §§34. 42b), MI.KAM-az-ma-at-kan "but during the night it (they)" (1. 3. 4), piran-ma-at-mu "but it in front of me" (1. 3. 5a), nu-war-an "and he" (2. 3), nu-war-as-za "and he himself" (2. 3. 5a), ammuk-ma-wa-kan "but me" (1. 2. 4), nu-wa-mu-za "and to myself" (2. 3. 5b), nu-wa-mu-kan "and to me" (2. 3. 4), nu-wa-nnas-za "and we ourselves" (2. 3. 5b), nu-wa-mu-ssan "and to me" (2. 3. 4), nu-wa-smas-(s)ta "and to you (Pl.) (to them)" (2. 3. 4) (about -(s)ta for -(a)sta, cf. §42c), nu-war-as-ta "and he to you (Sg.)" (2. 3. 5a), unnanzi-ma-war-as "but they bring him away" (1. 2. 3), kinun-a-war-as "and now he" (1. 2. 3), KASKALHI.A-ya-wa-smas "also the roads to you (Pl.)" (1. 2. 3), arahzenas-wa-mu-za "the neighbors themselves to me" (2. 3. 5b), mānn-a-wa-mu "and if to me" (1. 2. 3), DUMU-ŠU-ma-wa-ssi-za-kan "but his son to himself" (1. 2. 3. 4. 5b), kinun-ma-wa-tu-za "but now to himself" (1. 2. 3. 5b ; about -tu-, cf. §§40. 100), dUTUŠI-wa-du-za-kan "the Sun to yourself" (2. 3. 4. 5b).

2. The quotation particle

289) If a quotation is included in a narration, the enclitic particle -wa is affixed to the first accentuated word of each clause of the quotation : mPihhuniyas-ma-mu kissan hatrāes UL-wa-tta kuitki EĜIR-pa pihhi mānn-a-wa-mu zahhiya uwasi nu-wa-tta UL kuwatqa ammēl A.ŠÀ kueri anda zahhiya tiyami ANA KURTI-KA-wa-tta menahhanda uwami nu-wa-tta-kkan ANA ŠÀ KUR-KA zahhiya tiyami "but Pihhuniya wrote thus to me : I will give you nothing back. And if you come to fight me, I will go by no means onto my own land (and) soil ; I will meet you in your country and I will fight you in your country".

290) Several enclitic words starting with a vowel can follow the quotation particle, such as all the forms of the pronoun -a- (§102) or the particles -asta and -apa (§301). In that case, the particle occurs in its whole form -war- (§30) : nu arahzenas KUR.KUR KÚR kissan memir ABŪŠU-wa-ssi kuis LUGAL KUR Hatti esta nu-war-as UR.SAĜ-is LUGAL-us esta nu-wa-za KUR.KUR KÚR tarahhan harta nu-war-as-za DINGIRLIM-is DÙ-at DUMU-ŠU-ma-wa-ssi-za-kan kuis ANA ĜIŠGU.ZA ABĪŠU esat nu-wa apāss-a karū KALA-anza esta nu-war-an irmaliyattat nu-wa-za apāss-a DINGIRLIM-is kisat "and the neighboring enemy countries spoke thus : his father, who was king of the land Hatti, was a heroic king and he held the enemy countries in check ; and he became a god. But his son, who sat on the throne of his father, was before a war hero too ; now he fell ill (§200b) and he became a god too".

291) It sometimes happens that the verb introducing the quotation is missing ; the sentence can be understood by adding "with the words" before the quotation : nu-kan NAM.RAMEŠ katta uer nat-mu ĜÌRMEŠ-as kattan haliyandat BĒLĪNI-wa-nnas lē harnikti "the prisoners came down, and they knelt at my feet (with the words) : our lord, do not slaughter us !".

292) a) In the language of mythological texts, more rarely in the other texts, the use of the particle is less strict : nu sarā nepisi atti-ssi halzāis ammuga EĜIR-pa anda ep lē-mu genzuwāisi "now, he called his father towards heaven : bring me again ! do not shield me !" (next to several correct uses of the particle in the same text).

b) Conversely, -wa can be found at the wrong place in isolated cases : nu DUMUMEŠ-KA DUMUMEŠ dUTUŠI-pat AŠŠUM BĒLŪTIM pahsantaru nu-wa-smas HUL-lu menahhanda lē sanhateni "and your sons must respectfully get under the authority of the sons of the Sun. And do not plan anything evil !", nu-wa mUkkuras UGULA.10 MUNUS.LUGAL li-in-kán!-ta "and Ukkura, the decurion of the queen swore (!)".

c) 1. Occasionally, -wa can be found at the beginning of a quotation, but not in the following part of the quotation.

2. -wa can also be omitted in short sentences of a dialogue.

3. The particle -pat "even, also"

293) Only the main uses of the enclitic particle -pat (of unsure reading, maybe -pit or -pe) can be presented here since there is no thorough study about it :

a) it corresponds to English "even" (concerning what has already been mentioned) : if a slave has stolen, and takku BĒLŠU tezzi ser-wa-ssi sarnikmi nu sarnikzi takku mimmai-ma nu ÌR-an-pat sūizzi "if his master says : 'I want to execute his punishment for him', then he must execute the punishment. But if he refuses, he must even forsake the slave", nu-kan mUhha-LÚ-is aruni anda BA.UG7 DUMUMEŠ-ŠUNU-ma-za arha sarrandat nu-kan 1-as ŠÀ A.AB.BA-pat esta 1-as-ma-kan arunaz arha uit "and Uhha-LÚ died in the sea (i.e. on an island). His sons separated (§254b) ; and one still stayed in the sea, but the other came back from the sea".

apās-pat can be translated by "this very, it itself" : takku ÌR-is huwāi nas kururi KUR-e pāizzi kuis-an EĜIR-pa uwatezzi nan-zan (§34) apās-pat dāi "if a slave flees and goes into an enemy country, the one who brings him back can keep this very one for himself".

b) -pat with a possessive pronoun has the meaning "own" : apēl-pat annasas katta "with his own mother", SAĜ.DU-KA-pat "your own head".

c) With a predicate, it means "also, as well" : nu-za ABŪYA kuwapi DINGIRLIM-is DÙ-at mArnuwandas-ma-za-kan ŠEŠ-YA ANA ĜIŠGU.ZA ABĪŠU esat EĜIR-an-ma-as irmaliyattat-pat "and as soon as my father became a god, my brother Arnuwanda sat on the throne of his father. But after, he also fell ill".

d) A frequent meaning of -pat is "only" : kappuwantes-pat-mu-kan antuhses isparter "only few people (lit. countable, §277c) escaped from me", LUGAL-us-san hantezziyas-pat DUMU.LUGAL kikkittaru "only the first prince shall become king", nu-za ÌR-SÚ-pat dāi sarnikzil NU.ĜÁL "he can only take his slave, there is no compensation". In predictions, often after having determined the reason for the divine wrath : mān kī-pat namma-ma tamai NU.ĜÁL kuitki "if there is only this one, then nothing else is available".

e) Less frequently, it means "nevertheless, all the same" : nu-za mān irmalanza-sa (§25b) esta dUTUŠI-ma-tta ANA AŠAR ABĪKA tittanunun-pat "and although you are ill, I have nevertheless installed you at the place of your father".

4. The particles of position -kan and -san

294) The particles -kan and -san are presented together since they both imply a relation with location ; they are mainly used with verbs of motion. The different uses of -kan are not yet fully understood.

295) -kan is especially found with locations. It modifies above all the meaning of the particle of verbs of motion. If the motion is the consequence of a previous motion, -kan is lacking, if it is an independant motion, -kan is present. More precisely :

Examples : nekuz mehur-ma DINGIRLUM anda udanzi "in the evening however, they bring the deity in again", nu-war-as-kan kāsma sumās anda uit "and see! he came in your house", GIM-an-ma URUNeriqaza EĜIR-pa uizzi "as he comes back however to Neriqqa", nan-kan EĜIR-pa INA KUR-ŠU pehutezzi "and he brings him away to his country", nas URUKÙ.BABBAR-si arha udahhun "and I brought them back to my house in Hattusa", nas-kan URU-riaz arha hūdak pāiddu "and he must immediately leave the city", lukkatta-ma parā pāun "but the following day, I went forward", LÚ ĜIŠPA-ma-kan parā aski pāizzi "but the messenger goes out through the gate", nu nekuz mehuni hūdak GAM pāitten "and goes down again immediately at night", nu-kan ERIN2MEŠ URU-az katta udas "and he brought troops at the bottom of the city", nas INA É DINGIRLIM sesuwanzi hūdak sarā uiddu "and he must go up again immediately to the temple to sleep", nu-kan URUAstata URU-ri sarā pāun "and I went up to the town Astata".

296) One can compare other cases : nat-kan ANA KUR URUHatti istarna uda "bring that to the land Hatti", nas-kan aruni parranda pāit "and he crossed the sea", nat-kan INA KUR Gasga kattanda pēdas "and he brought him down to the land Gasga", kuitman-as-kan INA KUR URUHatti sēr "as long as he (is) above in the land Hatti". Conversely, nu-mu ŠEŠ-YA dNIR.ĜÁL-is EĜIR-anda uit "and my brother Muwattalli came behind me", nu-mu ENMEŠ hūmantes menahhanda uer "and all the lords came in front of me".

297) -kan disappears :

a) next to the particles -san (§300) and -asta (§301a) : nasta LUGAL-us IŠTU É dZababa parā uizzi "and then the king went out of the temple of Zababa".

b) near andan, appan and kattan : nu-ssi INA URUSamuha ukila kattan pāun "and I myself went to his house in Samuha".

c) when a verb has no particle : nan BĒLUM kuiski uwateddu "and any lord must bring him back".

298) 1. -kan is also present :

a) with some adverbial phrases of spatial meaning such as pedi daliya- "to give place", ŠÀ-ta tarna- "to take into account", ŠU-i dāi- "to put in one's hand", KASKAL-si dāi- "to implement".

b) with verbs of meaning "to influence someone physically or mentally" such as es- "to occupy", kuen- "to strike", ishāi- "to impose", zammurāi- "to humiliate", etc...

c) with verbs of meaning "to be influenced by someone" such as nahh- "to be afraid of", aus- "to see something in somebody", wemiya- "to find something in somebody", etc...

2. But it is lacking with these verbs in legal texts after takku : man-kan kuenzi "and he kills him", nan-kan kunanzi "and they kill him", but takku DAM.GÀR URUHatti kuiski kuenzi "if someone kills a merchant of Hatti", takkus LÚ-is wemiyazi tus kuenzi "if a man finds them and kills them".

299) The particle -san never occurs next to -kan. They are mutually exclusive (§297a). The group -za-san becomes -zan according to §42b1.

300) -san is especially found with verbs of position which can also use -kan ; -san probably gives to these verbs the special meaning "on, over". The particle ser is frequently found next to -san. Examples : ser-a-ssan ŠA ĜIŠ artari "and upon it a wooden handlebar is found" (on the other hand ANA ĜIŠGIGIR-ya-kan kuēdani apēdani UD-ti arhahat "and the chariot on which I stood that day"), nas-san ŠA dU ĜIŠŠÚ.A asāsi "and he seats her on the chair of the Storm-god" (but nan-kan ĜIŠhuluganni asesanzi "but one seats him in the chariot"), nu-ssi-ssan UDU UZUGAB-i ser epzi "and he holds the sheep on his chest" (next to nu-ssi-kan iskisas ser epzi "and he holds (it) on his back"), nu-zan mān ANA dUTUŠI ser SAĜ.DU-KA-pat ser autti "and if you watch the Sun (like) your head".

5. The particles -(a)sta and -(a)pa

301) a) The meaning of the particles -(a)sta and -(a)pa (-ap) is not yet understood ; the latter commonly and occasionally alternates with -(a)sta in Old-Hittite.

b) 1. About the reduction of -asta in -sta or -ta after the syllables -as, -is, -us, cf. §42c1.

2. If -apa follows a word ending in -i, it is reduced to -pa : aki "he dies" + -(a)pa > akipa, nu + -at + -si + -(a)pa > natsepa "and it to him".