K. Conjunctions

1. -a, -ya "and, also"

302) a) The conjunction is affixed as an enclitic to the second word or the first word of the second clause. It is written -a after a consonant, -ya after a vowel or an ideogram, cf. §41a.

b) It is sometimes written -a + -ya without any particular reason : wātarr-a-ya "and water", apātt-a-ya "also this", and often kinun-a-ya-war-an "and now him".

303) a) -a, -ya "and" connects individual words : appanti kunanti-ya mekki esta "the prisoners and the killed were many", mManapa-dU-an-ma-za KUR ÍDSeha-ya ÌR-anni dahhun "but I have enslaved Manapa-Datta and the land of the river Seha", dUTUŠI-in-pat sāk pahsi-ya-an "so 'my Sun', recognize them and protect them".

b) However, some words are easily paired without conjunction (asyndeton) : attas annas "father and mother" (= "parents"), LUGAL MUNUS.LUGAL "king and queen, the royal couple", ERIN2MEŠ ANŠU.KUR.RAMEŠ "foot-soldiers and charioteers", arahzenēs antūrēs "foreigners and natives", mallanzi harranzi "they grind and crush", adanna akuwanna "to eat and to drink".

304) a) Moreover, -a, -ya connects two juxtaposed clauses without progress of the action : nu-mu dIŠTAR GAŠAN-YA kuit kanissan harta ŠEŠ-YA-ya-mu dNIR.ĜÁL-is assu harta "because Ištar, my lady, kept me blessed and my brother Muwattalli kept be good", nu-wa memiyan ANA dUTUŠI hatrāi antuhsann-a-wa ep nu-war-an ANA ABI dUTUŠI uppi "write the word to the 'Sun' and arrest the man and send him to the father of the 'Sun'".

b) 1. -a ... -a (-ya ... -ya) means "sth ... as well as sth" : ŠA mAttarissiya-ya 1 LÚ SIG5-in kuennir anzēll-a-kan 1 LÚ SIG5-in kuennir "they killed a man of A. as well as a man of ours", eppirr-a mekki kuennirr-a mekki "they sheltered many as well as they killed many".

2. With a negation, it means "neither ... nor" : nu-war-an sannattiya lē munnāsi-ya-war-an lē "neither hide him nor conceal him".

305) a) Finally, -a, -ya means "also, too" : nu-wa-za apāss-a DINGIRLIM-is kisat "now he has become a god too (like his father before)", nu-za MU.KAM-za ser tepawessanza esta BĒLŪHI.A-ya-mu memir MU.KAM-za-wa-tta ser tepawessanza "then the year had become (too) short. Also the lords told me : the year has become (too) short".

b) Occasionally, -a, -ya is translated by "but" : karū 30 GUDHI.A peskir kinun-a 15 GUDHI.A pāi "one formerly used to give 30 oxen, but now he gives 15 oxen", kissan-a lē tesi "but you (Sg.) must not speak like that".

2. nu "and"

306) a) nu is used to connect whole sentences. With the pronoun -a- (§102) and the particles -(a)sta and -(a)pa, it becomes na- (§38a. 103a), nasta and napa (§301a).

b) nu is a word to which enclitic pronouns and particles are easily affixed ; examples at §288.

307) In Neo-Hittite, nu has two functions :

a) It connects two coordinate clauses and corresponds to "and" ; it implies however a progress in the action ("and then") : nu-mu-kan mSUM.MA.dKAL-an DUMU-ŠU menahhanda parā nāesta nas-mu INA ÍDAstarpa MÈ-ya tiyat nan dUTUŠI zahhiyanun nu-mu dUTU URUArinna DINGIRMEŠ-ya hūmantes piran huēr nu-za mSUM.MA.dKAL-an tarahhun nan-kan kuenun nu-kan INA KUR URUArzawa parranda pāun nu-mu mUhha-LÚ-is UL mazzasta nas-mu-kan huwāis nas-kan aruni parranda pāit nas-kan apiya anda esta "and he dispatched his son S., and he went forward to the river Astarpa to fight me, and I, the Sun, fought him. And the Sun-goddess of Arinna and all the gods rushed before me, and I defeated S. and I stroke him. Then I went into the land Arzawa and Uhha-LÚ did not resist to me and he fled before me and he crossed the sea to an island and he stayed there".

b) It connects the main clause (apodosis "then ...") to the conditional subordinate clause (protasis "if ...") : kuitman-za-kan ANA ĜIŠGU.ZA ABĪYA nāwi eshat nu-mu arahzenas KUR.KURMEŠ KÚR hūmantes kururiyahhir "as I was not yet seated on the throne of my father, all the enemy neighboring countries began to attack me".

308) a) nu can also stand at the beginning of longer sections where it can be translated by "then" : nu tuēl mahhan mMashuiluwas ABŪKA ITTI dUTUŠI wastas zik-ma-za mKupanta-dKAL-as ANA mPÍŠ.TUR-wa UL KÚR-as esta nu-tta-kan UL É ABĪKA arha dahhun "then after your father Mashuiluwa had sinned against the 'Sun', from you, K., who were not hostile against Mashuiluwa, I did not take the house of your father", nu kuitman ABŪYA INA KUR URUMitanni esta "then while my father was in the country Mitanni, (this and that happened)".

b) However, it is usually missing at the beginning of long sections : ABŪYA-annas-za mMursilis 4 DUMUMEŠ hasta "my father Mursili begot 4 children" (at the beginning of the autobiography of Hattusili).

c) 1. It is especially missing in general at the beginning of quotations : nat-mu ĜÌRMEŠ-as kattan haliyandat BĒLĪNI-wa-nnas lē harnikti nu-wa-nnas-za BĒLĪNI ÌR-anni dā "they prostrated themselves at my feet (with the words) : our lord, do not slaughter us, and take us, our lord, at your (§240) service".

2. But it sometimes stands at the beginning of a quotation : dIŠKUR-sa tezzi nu-war-an kuit handa UL wemiyatten "and the Storm-god says : then since you did not find him". It is the same with shorts sentences : nu kuit "so what ? (i.e. what is there to say ?)".

309) In Old-Hittite, nu has a more restricted use :

a) It can occasionally stand between two coordinate clauses : takku LÚ-is GUD-as katta wastai hurkil aki-as LUGAL-an aski uwatezzi "if a man sins with an ox, (it is) an abomination, he will be killed. He will bring him at the court of the king (§62c)".

b) It generally stands between coordinate clauses in asyndeton in rituals : nu PĀNI ĜIŠDAG-ti Ù PĀNI dZababa 2-ŠU dāi hassi 1-ŠU ĜIŠDAG-ti 1-ŠU ĜIŠAB-ya 1-ŠU ĜIŠhattalwas ĜIŠ-rui 1-ŠU namma hassi tapusza 1-ŠU dāi UGULA LÚMEŠ MUHALDIM ispanduzzisar ĜEŠTIN LUGAL-i parā epzi LUGAL-us QĀTAM dāi "then he sets once in front of the throne and in front of the god Zababa, once in front of the hearth, once on the throne, once in the window, once on the wooden bolt, once more next to the hearth. The manager of the cooks holds a wine ration out to the king, the king puts his hand".

c) In legislative texts, an asyndeton should generally be understood when a protasis has several terms : takku DUMU.MUNUS LÚ-ni taranza tamais-an pittenuzi "if a girl (is) promised to a man (and if) another one abducts her".

d) Old-Hittite generally does not add nu to the apodosis contrary to §307b : takku ÌR-an KAxKAK-set kuiski wāki 3 GÍN KÙ.BABBAR pāi "if someone bites off the nose of a slave (§213a), he will give 3 shekels of silver", nu GIM-an lukkutta dUTU-us-kan kalmaraz uit mKissis suppiyaz sastas (!) arāis "then when the morning after the Sun-god came above the mountain (?), K. arose from the pure bed" (sastas : mistake for sastaz ?).

310) In some cases, nu is omitted, especially in Neo-Hittite :

a) at the beginning of a long section (cf. §308b) ;

b) with prohibitive clauses between two prohibitions, with an order and a prohibition, as well as with a positive clause after a prohibition : nu-wa-kan ŠÀ URUIyalanda tuēl UKU3-an lē kuinki wemiyami ziqqa-wa-za-kan EĜIR-pa anda lē kuinki tarnatti ammēl-wa ÌRMEŠ ukila EĜIR-an san(a)hmi "now I do not want to find any of your people in the city I. ! Do not let any inside again ! I will look after my sujects by myself", apūn-wa UKU3-an dā lē-war-an arha datti "accept this man ! You should not take him away" ;

c) 1. with emphasis, especially with emphatic and rhetorical questions : eshar INA KUR URUKÙ.BABBAR-ti ara "is the blood (crime) lawful in the land Hatti ?", UKU3-as DINGIRMEŠ-ass-a ZI-anza tamais kuiski UL "is the mentality different between men and gods ? No !" ;

2. on the other hand, nu is present with rhetorical questions after a subordinate clause : ŠEŠ-tar kuis kuēdani hatreskizzi nu-kan UL assiyantes kuēs nu 1-as 1-ēdani ŠEŠ-tar hatreskizzi "those of the brotherhood who keep on writing, (are they) not those who (are) friends ? Thus, the one keeps on writing to the other one of the brotherhood" ;

d) in the explanatory parenthetical clauses : kās-ma KARTAPPU kuis ŠA MUNUS.LUGAL-za kuit ŠA MÁŠTI harzi INA KUR URUHatti ŠA MUNUS.LUGAL MÁŠTUM mekki salli nas-mu UL imma HADANU "but this riding master, because he has (a woman) from the family of the queen - in the land Hatti, the family of the queen (is indeed) highly regarded - (is) so to speak (lit. not completely) a brother-in-law of mine" ;

e) in result adverbial clauses (English "in such a way that, to the point that") : namma-kan mān IŠTU KUR URUHatti kuiski idālus memiyas ŠA BAL sarā isparzazi KURTUM kuitki arahza ANA dUTUŠI kururiyahzi ITTI dUTUŠI-ma hūman SIG5-in nu AWĀT dUTUŠI huski "besides, if the bad rumor of a riot comes out from the land Hatti, in such a way that a country starts a war outside against the Sun, all (is) favorable however for the Sun, so await the instructions of the Sun", nu mān mDU.dU DUMU-ŠU ANA PĀNI mAbiratta ABĪŠU kuitki wastai ABAŠU HUL-anni sanhazi "if now his son D. sins against his father A. in such a way that he looks for his father for evil (i.e. that he tries to act badly towards his father)", nu KUR-ya andan kāsza kisati DUMU.LU.ULU3LU.MEŠ DINGIRMEŠ-s-a kistantit harkiyanzi "and in the country the famine happened, to the point that men and gods starve to death" ;

f) next to the unreality particle man : nu-war-as-mu-kan sullāit nu-wa-mu ÌRMEŠ-YA kattan harnamniyat man-wa-mu menahhanda kururiyahha nu-war-as-mu piran arha piddais "and he quarreled with me and he persecuted (?) my subjects (and) he would have started to make war against me ; and he fled before me", man-kan mān ANA dUTUŠI kuwapi HUL-wanni kittat man-ta dUTUŠI arha pessiyanun man-ta-kkan É ABĪKA arha dahhun "if this had ever (§253bβ) appeared evil for the Sun, I, the Sun, would have rejected you and I would have taken the house of your father from you" (on the other hand, in the real mode : kinun-a-kan ANA dUTUŠI kuit HUL-wanni UL kittat-nu-tta arha UL pessiyanun nu-tta-kan É ABĪKA arha UL dahhun "since this has not appeared evil for the Sun, I have not rejected you and I have not taken the house of your father from you").

g) in series of clauses with kuitman "until" (§326d3).

311) a) The sentences with kuit "because" (§323) usually have nu at the beginning of the clause with kuit as well as at the transition with the main clause : nu-wa-mu IBILA kuit NU.ĜÁL mKupanta-dKAL-as-ma-mu DUMU ŠEŠ-YA nu-war-an-mu EN-YA DUMU-anni pāi "since there is no offspring for me, but K. is the son of my brother, then give him to me, my lord, as a descendant".

b) However, the clause with kuit can also have no particle : ABŪKA-mu kuit tuēl ŠUM-an memiskit nu-tta apaddan EĜIR-an san(a)hhun "since your father had told (i.e. recommended) me several times your name, then I have taken care of you".

c) In the same way, nu can be missing from the beginning of the main clause : ANA PĀNI DINGIRMEŠ kuit parā handandanni iyahhahat ŠA DUMU.NAM.LÚ.ULU3LU-UTTI HUL-lu uttar UL kuwapikki iyanun "since I have walked in front of the gods according to (their) rule, I have never made the evil of humanity (i.e. I have never acted badly as the other men usually do)".

312) The verbs uwa- "to come" and pāi- "to go" (along with the imperatives it "go! (Sg.) " and itten "go! (Pl.) ", §164 2a) are often followed by another verb. In that case, they are placed before the following verb in asyndeton and they can take, like an adverb, the particles at the beginning of a clause : wer-ma mTettes mEN-urtass-a ITTI dUTUŠI kururiyahhir "but Tetti and E. came (and) fought against the Sun", nu-wa uizzi zilatiya ANA KURTI EN-as "then he will go (and he will be) in the future the lord in the country", it-wa-mu karsin memiyan zik EĜIR-pa uda "go (and) bring back a clear information !", pāiweni-war-an-kan kuennummeni "we want to go (and) kill him".

They can also be placed between a transitive verb and its preceding direct object : nan uwammi KÚR-as iwar wal(a)hmi "and I will come (and) I will attack it (an aforementioned city) as an enemy".

313) a) In a sentence like "this would have happened, but for any reason it happened differently", Hittite usually uses nu to say "but" : man-ta-kkan kuennir nu zik isparzasta "they would have killed you, but you escaped", man-si pāun mān-an arha harninkun nu-mu-kan AMA-ŠU menahhanda parā nāista "I would have gone against him (and) I would have thrown him down, but he sent his mother to me (with an offer for peace)".

b) -ma "but" is sometimes used in this case : man INA KUR URUAzzi taninumanzi pāun mahhan-maMEŠ URUAzzi istamassir "I would have gone in the land Azzi to organize it (as a district). But when the people of Azzi heard (this) (they voluntarily surrendered)".

314) a) nu and -ma are very rarely found together in positive sentences : nu ammuk-ma GIM-an nakkesta nu-mu-za hantī kuwapiki esta UL-mu-za GAM-an esta "while it was starting to be oppressive for me, you were somewhere far away from me, and you were not with me".

b) The group nu ... -ma on the contrary is very frequent in multiple interrogations (cf. §285a).

315) namma "furthermore, again" is tied to nu in the expression nu namma "thus, hence, consequently" whose terms can only be separated by enclitics : nu-mu MU.KAM-za kuit ser tēpawessanza esta nu namma KUR URUAzzi UL daninunun "since the year had now become (too) short for me, then I did not organize the land Azzi (as a district)", nu mahhan mUhha-LÚ-is GIG-at nas-mu namma zahhiya menahhanda UL uit "since U. has now fallen ill, he has therefore not come to fight me".

3. ta and su "and"

316) ta is used as a synonym of nu by Old-Hittite as well as by the legislative language and the language of worship. It is also used :

a) to link coordinate clauses : cf. the alternation between nu, ta and the asyndeton in the ritual : LÚMEŠ ĜIŠBANŠUR-kan 2 NINDAmitgaimius danzi tas LUGAL MUNUS.LUGAL-ri pianzi ta parsiyanziMEŠ ĜIŠBANŠUR-kan 2 NINDAmitgaimis appanzi nas-kan appa suppayas ĜIŠBANŠURHI.A-as tianzi "the table servants take 2 loaves of mitgaimi-bread and they give them to the royal couple, and they break (them) (§237a). The table servants take the 2 loaves of mitgaimi-bread and they put them again on the pure tables", and nearly identical but with a different distribution of the conjunctions : LÚ ĜIŠBANŠUR ... NINDAmitgaimius dāi LUGAL-i pāi LUGAL-us parsiya tus-kanĜIŠBANŠUR appa suppai ĜIŠBANŠUR-i dāi "the table servant takes ... the loaf of mitgaimi-bread (and) he gives (it) to the king, (and) the king breaks (it). The table servant puts it again on the pure table".

b) in introduction to the apodosis : takku ÌRMEŠ-ŠU GEME2MEŠ-ŠU kuēlqa hurkel iyanzi tus arnuwanzi "if the servant and the maid of someone commit an abomination, then they will be dismissed".

c) about the peculiarity that an accusative pronoun in the 3rd person cannot be expressed with ta, cf. §237a.

317) su has the same usage as nu and ta, but is more rarely used and only in Old-Hittite texts : uk-wa atti-mi UL assus su-wa URUHattusi hingani pāun "I (am) not the favorite of my father and I will have to go to Hattusa to die", mIsputas-Inari-ma piir san-atta IŠTU É.EN.NUN tarnir "they however went to I. and they left him out of prison".

4. Other coordinating conjunctions

318) -ma means "but", sometimes with a weaker meaning (like Greek δέ).

a) It is generally affixed as enclitic to the first word of the sentence : mahhan-ma-za-kan dUTUŠI ANA ĜIŠGU.ZA ABĪYA eshat "but when I, the Sun, sat on the throne of my father, (such thing happened after)".

b) It is often found affixed to the second word in the protasis of conditional sentences and in conditional relative clauses : mān-kan ERIN2MEŠ-ma ANŠU.KUR.RAMEŠ warri UL arnusi "if you do not bring foot-soldiers and chariots" (next to the sentence of similar meaning mān-ma-kan ERIN2MEŠ ANŠU.KUR.RAMEŠ warri UL arnutti ), takku kessiras-ma wastai "but if the hand commits an outrage", kuis-an appa-ma uwatezzi "but who brings him back".

c) In the same case, -ma is occasionally doubled : mān-ma-as-ta-kkan ŠÀ KUR-KA-ma uizzi "but if he comes to you into your country".

319) -ma has sometimes so little intensity in the apodosis that it can be left untranslated in English : GIM-an-ma-za ŠEŠ-YA DINGIRLIM-is DÙ-at mUrhi-dU-upan-ma DUMU ŠEŠ-YA sarā dahhun "but since my brother had become a god, (but) I took Urhi-Tessup, the son of my brother".

320) a) nasma usually means "or" : ÌR-an nasma GEME2-an "a servant or a maid", mān tuk-ma kuiski mTargasnallin nasma DUMU-KA kunanna sanhanzi "but if you, Targasnalli, or your son try to kill someone".

b) nassu - nasma means "either - or" : nassuURUHatti kuiski nasmaURUArzawa kuiski "either a man of the land Hatti, or a man of the land Arzawa", nassu-wa-kan KÚR apūs kuindu nasma-wa-kan KÚR apūs kunandu "either the enemy can strike these one, or these one can strike the enemy".

321) nassu sometimes has the meaning of the disjunctive conjunction "or" : EBURMEŠ-wa-mu-kan piran nassu kusāta nassu KASKAL-as nasma tamai kuitki uttar "the harvest (occurs) for me before the dowry or a trip or anything (that will require an expense of money)".

Thus, nassu originally meant "either" as well as "or", and nasma (< nassuma) contains the multiple interrogation particle -ma (§285a).